Monthly Archives: October 2016


Karikala was a Chola king who ruled in southern India during the Sangam period. He is recognized as the greatest of the Early Cholas. Though there is disagreement between scholars on the dating of his reign, the most widely accepted date is 190 CE, which has been arrived at through the Gajabahu synchronism.

The story of Karikala is mixed with legend and anecdotal information gleaned from Sangam literature. No authentic records of Karikala’s reign has been found so far. The only sources available are the numerous mentions in Sangam poetry. The period covered by the extant literature of the Sangam is unfortunately not easy to determine with any measure of certainty.

Paṭṭiṉappālai, Poruṇarāṟṟuppaṭai and a number of individual poems in the Akanaṉūṟu and Purananuru have been the main source for the information that is attributed to Karikala.

Karikala was the son of Ilamcetcenni. The name Karikalan has been held to mean “the man with the charred leg” and perpetuates the memory of a fire accident in the early years of his life best fabric defuzzer. Some scholars also hold the view kari and kalan are Tamil words meaning “slayer of elephants”. Poruṇarāṟṟuppaṭai describes the back-formed origin legend of this incident as follows:

The king of Urayur Ilamcetcenni married a Velir princess from Azhundur and she became pregnant and gave birth to Karikala. Ilamcetcenni died soon after. Due to his young age, Karikala’s right to the throne was overlooked and there was political turmoil in the country. Karikala was exiled. When normality returned, the Chola ministers sent a state elephant to look for the prince. The elephant found the prince hiding in Karuvur. His political opponents arrested and imprisoned him. The prison was set on fire that night. Karikala escaped the fire and, with the help of his uncle Irum-pitar-thalaiyan, defeated his enemies. Karikala’s leg was scorched in the fire and from thence Karikala became his name.

Old sangam age insciptions and also sthala puranam of great ancient saiva shrine at parasalur, near mayavaram says that inorder to escape the murder plot hatched by conspirators karikal valavan stayed there in disguise of a vedic and agama sastra lecturer for 8 years. Paṭṭiṉappālai, written in praise of Karikala also describes this incident, but without mention of the fable of the burnt limb:

Like the Tiger cub with its sharp claws and its curved stripes growing (strong) within the cage, his strength came to maturity (like wood in grain) while he was in the bondage of his enemies. As the large trunked elephant pulls down the banks of the pit, and joins its mate, even so after deep and careful consideration, he drew his sword, effected his escape by overpowering the strong guard and attained his glorious heritage in due course.

According to the Poruṇarāṟṟuppaṭai, Karikala Chola fought a great Battle of Venni in which both Pandyan and Cheran kings[who?] suffered a defeat. Although we know very little about the circumstances leading to this battle cute water bottles, there can be no doubt that it marked the turning point in Karikala’s career, for in this battle he broke the back of the powerful confederacy formed against him soccer socks. Besides the two crowned kings of the Pandya and Chera countries, eleven minor chieftains took the opposing side in the campaign and shared defeat at the hands of Karikala. The Chera king, who was wounded on his back in the battle, committed suicide by starvation. Venni was the watershed in the career of Karikala which established him firmly on his throne and secured for him some sort of hegemony among the three crowned monarchs sock monkey socks wholesale. Venni is also known as Vennipparandalai and now it is known as Kovilvenni and is situated near Thanjavur.

After the battle of Venni, Karikala had other opportunities to exercise his arms. He defeated the confederacy of nine minor chieftains in the battle of Vakaipparandalai. Paranar, a contemporary of Karikala, in his poem from Agananuru mentions this incident without giving any information on the cause of the conflict. According to legends Karikala was one of the few Tamil kings who won the whole of Ceylon (Lanka). The Grand anicut was built after his conquest over the Singalese kingdom and he used Singalese war prisoners for the hard task of moving stones from the mountains to the river bed of the Kaveri. The Pattinappalai also describes the destruction caused by Karikala’s armies in the territories of his enemies and adds that as the result of these conflicts, the “Northerners and Westerners were depressed… and his flushed look of anger caused the Pandya’s strength to give way…”.

Later Chola kings attributed the building of dikes along the banks of the Kaveri to Karikala. The raising of the banks of the river Kaveri by Karikala is also mentioned by the Melapadu plates of Punyakumara: karuna – saroruha vihita – vilochana – pallava – trilochana pramukha kilapritvisvara karita kaveri tira (he who caused the banks of the Kaveri to be constructed by all the subordinate kings led by the Pallava Trinetra whose third eye was blinded by his lotus foot).

The Grand Anicut, also known as the Kallanai was built by Karikala and is considered one of the oldest water-diversion or water-regulator structures in the world which is still in use. The Kallanai is a massive dam of unhewn stone, 329 metres (1,080 ft) long and 20 metres (60 ft) wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri.

Karikala Cholan Manimandapam (memorial hall) was build in order to honour of the king who built Grand Anicut. The hall has Dravidian architecture and built at the anicut and it costed Rs. 2.10 crore. It featured bronze statue of the king.

Circuit Training Exercises for Football Players

Circuit training utilizes a technique of high intensity with a low rest interval to provide a result of increasing both muscular strength and endurance. While circuit training has proven to be effective, prolonged circuit training can produce overtraining and chronic fatigue injuries. Circuit training is best utilized in initial strength building at the beginning of an off-season workout program, according to fitness expert Charles Poliquin in “Football: Five Steps to Increase the Effectiveness of Your Strength Training Program.”
The push press trains both hip drive and the press, making it more ideal than the bench press alone for football training. This exercise needs to be performed in a weight rack to decrease the risk of the athletes. Begin by holding the bar on the chest with a shoulder width grip. Use a slight leg push and large arm drive to push the bar and lock the bar out overhead. Your coach should make sure that the athlete keeps his back flat and does not lean backward during the arm drive.
Hammer curls provide a highly explosive repetitive curling exercise. Use a dumbbell in each hand — curl the first dumbbell all the way to the chest. As the dumbbell begins down, begin curling the other dumbbell. This will continue repetitively, using the curling and relaxation as a counterbalance, to prevent bouncing during the exercise.
Power shrugs are important in developing shoulders, hips and quadriceps, all of which are important to tackling and blocking. Begin by gripping the bar, hands shoulder width apart. Keep your arms fully extended throughout the exercise. Bend the legs and explode back to standing. Using the momentum of the hip drive, shrug the bar by trying to pinch your shoulders to your ears. Hold for a one-count at the highest point of the exercise and then proceed back to the resting position.
Split squat lunges are effective for increasing leg drive power used by football players for improving speed. There is two distinct ways for performing this exercise, one using dumbbells and the other using a barbell on the back as if performing a back squat. Using dumbbells is easier for circuit training for players switching between stations. Stand with both dumbbells in your hands. Step out into a lunge, making sure to keep your knee over the front leg. Proceed down until your back knee is just off the ground. Push yourself up and back into the beginning position — alternate legs and continue repetitively.
There are many different circuit exercises of which can be utilized for football training. The key is to have exercises that do not place the athlete at risk from a fatigue injury and train players for the game of football. Exercises should also be easily able to switch between partners and groups to minimize time lost in transition. Other weight exercises include but are not limited to leg press, leg extension, leg curls, upright rows, hammer rows, pull downs

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, toe raises, bench press and military press. Other body weight or alternative exercises include but are not limited to jump rope, body weight squats, dips, push-ups, sit-ups, crunches, jumping jacks and wall sits.

Torbert Escarpment

Torbert Escarpment (Coordinates: ) is an escarpment, 15 nautical miles (28 km) long, marking the west margin of Median Snowfield in the Neptune Range thermos bottle, Pensacola Mountains. Mapped by United States Geological Survey (USGS) from surveys and U.S. Navy air photos, 1956-66. Named by Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) after Mount Torbert, the salient feature along its edge.

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$31.99 1.5x, // 2x” data-file-width=”196″ data-file-height=”196″> This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document “Torbert Escarpment” (content from the Geographic Names Information System).