Monthly Archives: February 2017

C-Peptid

Das C-Peptid (engl. connecting peptide) ist Teil des Proinsulins und wird labordiagnostisch in erster Linie im Rahmen der Differentialdiagnostik des Diabetes mellitus bestimmt, aber auch zur Diagnostik eines Insulinoms oder einer Hypoglycaemia factitia.

Das C-Peptid besteht aus 31 Aminosäuren und verbindet die A-Kette mit der B-Kette des Proinsulins. Bei der Umwandlung vom Proinsulin zum Insulin wird dieses enzymatisch abgespalten, um danach zusammen mit dem Insulin aus den β-Zellen der Bauchspeicheldrüse ins Blut ausgeschüttet zu werden. C-Peptid hat eigene Effekte auf den Kohlenhydratstoffwechsel und sein Fehlen spielt möglicherweise bei der Entwicklung diabetischer Organschäden eine Rolle. In medikamentös verabreichten Insulinen ist das C-Peptid nicht mehr vorhanden.

Das C-Peptid kann labordiagnostisch im Serum oder Urin mittels eines enzymatischen Immunassays nachgewiesen werden. Die Halbwertszeit des C-Peptid ist zehnmal länger als die des Insulins.

Das C-Peptid dient als Marker (Messwert) der Sekretion der β-Zellen der Bauchspeicheldrüse. Im Rahmen eines Glukosebelastungstests kann ihre Reaktionsfähigkeit bestimmt werden.

Um die Insulinbedürftigkeit eines Diabetikers zu bestimmen, kann das Verhältnis von C-Peptid zum Nüchtern-Blutzucker (NBZ) bestimmt werden. Werte unter 11,7 sprechen für ein Sekundärversagen und die Notwendigkeit der Insulingabe.








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Der Glukosebelastungstest dient zur Bestimmung der Glukosestabilität. Hierzu wird nach intravenöser Bolusinjektion von Glukose (Traubenzucker) der Anstieg des C-Peptids gemessen. Bei einem fehlenden oder nur geringen Anstieg sind Schwankungen der Blutzuckerwerte trotz intensiver Therapie und guter Patientenmitarbeit (Compliance) wahrscheinlich.

Das Vorhandensein von C-Peptid im Blut gibt Auskunft über den Stand der körpereigenen Insulinproduktion. Die C-Peptid-Menge ist direkt proportional zum ausgeschütteten Insulin sec football uniforms. Die Aussagekraft beim Diabetes mellitus bei leicht erniedrigten Werten ist gering. Nur der absolute Mangel oder deutlich erniedrigte Werte (unter 0,5-1,0 µg/l) korrelieren mit einer substitutionspflichtigen Insulinmangelsymptomatik. Dagegen kann auch bei erhöhten Werten eine Insulintherapie aufgrund der Insulinresistenz notwendig sein waterproof case smartphone. Bei einem Abfall unter den Normwert kann eine Insulintherapie, wenn vielleicht auch nur niedrigdosiert, begonnen werden, da bei einer noch geringen Eigenausschüttung von Insulin die Überlebensdauer der funktionsfähigen β-Zellen durch die frühzeitige exogene Insulingabe verlängert wird football goalkeeper shirts. Insofern hat die Höhe des C-Peptid-Spiegels einen prognostischen Wert auf den Verlauf einer Diabetes mellitus-Erkrankung.

Beim Insulinom spielt das C-Peptid eine wichtige Rolle in der Diagnostik der Erkrankung und kann später als Tumormarker dienen where can i buy a fabric shaver.

Es unterstützt den Nachweis einer Hypoglycaemia factitia.

The Best Fitness Wind Sprint Routine

When you are pressed for time but still want to get a good workout, sprint training might be just the ticket. This type of workout is high intensity and is not only physically demanding, but mentally challenging as well. The more vigorously you exercise, typically the more calories you will burn. The best wind sprint routine comes with several variables.
When you do sprints, you activate numerous muscles, joints, ligaments and tendons. Going into your workouts without stretching can increase your odds of getting injured. Prevent this from happening by doing six to eight dynamic stretches before your training sessions. These are performed by moving your body through a full range of motion. Perform stretches like arm crossovers, arm circles, deep knee bends, truck rotations, alternating toe touches, ankle bounces and leg swings.
Once you have completed your stretches, the next thing you need to do is a light warm-up. Start off with a fast-paced walk, then jog lightly and continue to increase your speed until you are breaking a slight sweat and your heart rate is elevated. This slowly raises your core body temperature and further loosens up your connective tissue. Spend 5 to 10 minutes on your warm-up.
The actual sprinting routine is intense, but basic in nature. The main thing is not how fast you move, but how much exertion you feel. After doing your warm-up, run about 85 percent maximum effort for 20 seconds. Use the talk test to gauge this. You should not be able to carry on a conversation at this point. Once you’ve finished your sprint, reduce your intensity to about 50 percent maximum effort for 40 seconds. Alternate back and forth for the rest of your workout and finish with a light cool-down jog in similar fashion to your warm-up. You do not have to start out doing 20-second sprints either. If it is more comfortable, make your sprints 10 seconds each and gradually increase your times as you fitness levels improve. TMake your low-intensity bouts twice as long as your sprints. You also have the option of resting completely in between your sprints.
Unlike long, steady state cardio sessions, wind sprints should not be performed on consecutive days due to their intensity. Aim for three, 20-to-30-minute sessions a week on alternating days. This does not include your warm-up and cool-down. On your off-days, stick with steady state cardio or perform weight training.
Although running is commonly associated with sprints, you do not have to use this form of exercise

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. Any type of cardio is suitable as long as you enjoy it. Low-impact cardio like indoor group cycling, elliptical training and stair stepping is actually more gentle on the back, according to the Spine-Health website. A recumbent bike that has a bucket seat and backrest is also a good option.
Sprint training not only causes you to burn a high amount of calories when you do it, but you also experience a high caloric expenditure when you are done. This is commonly referred to as EPOC ¡ª?post-exercise oxygen consumption. Simply put, the harder you work out, the more calories your body will burn when you are done. Such factors as your heart rate and breathing rate coming back down to normal contribute to this elevated metabolism. When doing sprints, you also have to forcefully contract your abs. This can help tone your midsection without even doing ab-specific exercises.
Wind sprint routines are very intense. If you are new to exercise or have not exercised in a long time, make sure to talk to your doctor before attempting them

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Great black-backed gull

The great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), also known as the greater black-backed gull or, informally, as the black-back, is the largest member of the gull family. It breeds on the European and North American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic and is fairly sedentary, though some black-backs move farther south or inland to large lakes or reservoirs. The adult great black-backed gull has a white head, neck and underparts, dark grey wings and back, pink legs and yellow bill.

The great black-backed gull was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae, and it still bears its original name of Larus marinus. The scientific name is from Latin. Larus appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific name marinus means “marine”.

Baagie or Baigie is a local name from the Shetland Islands.

This is the largest gull in the world, noticeably outsizing a herring gull (Larus argentatus). Only a few other gulls, including Pallas’s gull (Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), come close to matching this species’ size. It is 64–79 cm (25–31 in) long with a 1.5–1.7 m (4 ft 11 in–5 ft 7 in) wingspan and a body weight of 0.75–2.3 kg (1.7–5.1 lb). In a sample of 2009 adults from the North Atlantic, males were found to average 1,830 g (4.03 lb) and females were found to average 1,488 g (3.280 lb). An exceptionally large glaucous gull was found to outweigh any known great black-backed gull, although usually that species is slightly smaller. The great black-backed gull is bulky and imposing in appearance with a large, powerful bill. The standard measurements are: the bill is 5.4 to 7.25 cm (2.13 to 2.85 in), the wing chord is 44.5 to 53 cm (17.5 to 20.9 in) and the tarsus is 6.6 to 8.8 cm (2.6 to 3.5 in).

The adult great black-backed gull is fairly distinctive, as no other very large gull with blackish coloration on its upper-wings generally occurs in the North Atlantic. In other white-headed North Atlantic gulls, the mantle is generally a lighter gray color and, in some species, it is a light powdery color or even pinkish. It is grayish-black on the wings and back, with conspicuous, contrasting white “mirrors” at the wing tips. The legs are pinkish, and the bill is yellow or yellow-pink with some orange or red near tip of lower bill. The adult lesser black-backed gull (L. fuscus) is distinctly smaller, typically weighing about half as much as a great black-back. The lesser black-back has yellowish legs and a mantle that can range from slate-gray to brownish-colored but it is never as dark as the larger species. A few superficially similar dark-backed, fairly large gulls occur in the Pacific Ocean or in the tropics, all generally far outside this species’ range, such as the slaty-backed (L. schistisagus), the western (L. occidentalis) and the kelp gull (L. dominicanus).

Juvenile birds of under a year old have scaly, checkered black-brown upper parts, the head and underparts streaked with gray brown, and a neat wing pattern. The face and nape are paler and the wing flight feathers are blackish-brown. The juvenile’s tail is white with zigzag bars and spots at base and a broken blackish band near the tip. The bill of the juvenile is brownish-black with white tip and the legs dark bluish-gray with some pink tones. As the young gull ages, the gray-brown coloration gradually fades to more contrasting plumage and the bill darkens to black before growing paler. By the third year, the young gulls resemble a streakier, dirtier-looking version of the adult. They take at least four years to reach maturity, development in this species being somewhat slower than that of other large gulls. The call is a deep “laughing” cry, kaa-ga-ga, with the first note sometimes drawn out in an almost bovid-like sound. The voice is distinctly deeper than most other gull species.

First winter

Second winter

Third winter

Fourth winter

This species can be found breeding in coastal areas from the extreme northwest portion of Russia, through much of coastal Scandinavia, on the Baltic Sea coasts, to the coasts of northwestern France, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Across the northern portion of the Atlantic, this gull is distributed in Iceland and southern Greenland and on the Atlantic coasts of Canada and the United States. Though formerly mainly just a non-breeding visitor south of Canada in North America, the species has spread to include several colonies in the New England states and now breeds as far south as North Carolina. Individuals breeding in harsher environments will migrate south, wintering on northern coasts of Europe from the Baltic Sea to southern Portugal, and regularly down to coastal Florida in North America. During the winter in the Baltic Sea, the bird usually stays close to the ice boundary. North of the Åland islands, the sea often freezes all the way from Sweden to Finland, and then the bird migrates to open waters. Exceptionally, the species can range as far south as the Caribbean and off the coast of northern South America.

The great black-backed gull is found in a variety of coastal habitats, including rocky and sandy coasts and estuaries, as well as inland wetland habitats, such as lakes, ponds, rivers, wet fields and moorland. They are generally found within striking distance of large bodies of water while ranging inland. Today, it is a common fixture at refuse dumps both along coasts and relatively far inland. The species also makes extensive use of dredge spoils, which, in the state of New Jersey, comprise their most prevalent nesting sites. It generally breeds in areas free of or largely inaccessible to terrestrial predators, such as vegetated islands, sand dunes, flat-topped stacks, building roofs and sometimes amongst bushes on salt marsh islands. During the winter, the great black-backed gull often travels far out to sea to feed.

Like most gulls, great black-backed gulls are opportunistic feeders, apex predators, and are very curious. They will investigate any small organism they encounter and will readily eat almost anything that they can swallow. They get much of their dietary energy from scavenging, with refuse, most provided directly by humans, locally comprising more than half of their diet. The proliferation of garbage or refuse dumps has become a major attractant to this and all other non-specialized gull species in its range. However, apparently, in attempt to observe how much time they spend foraging at refuse dumps in Massachusetts, great black-backed gulls were only observed actively foraging 19% of their time there, eating less garbage than other common gulls, and spent most of their time roosting or loafing.

Like most gulls, they also capture fish with some regularity and will readily capture any fish smaller than itself found close to the surface of the water. Whether caught or eaten after death or injury from other sources, stomach contents of great black-backed gulls usually show fish to be the primary food. On Sable Island in Nova Scotia, 25% of the stomach contents were comprised by fish but 96% of the reguirations given to young was made up fish. Similarly, on Great Island in Newfoundland, 25% of the stomach contents were fish but 68% of regurgitants were fish. The most regularly reported fish eaten in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland were capelin (Mallotus villosus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morrhua), Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus). Other prey often includes various squid, Jonah crabs (Cancer borealis), rock crabs (Cancer irroratus), sea urchins, green crabs (Carcinus maenas), starfish (Asterias forbesi and Asterias rubens) and other echinoderms, crustaceans and mollusks when they come across the opportunity. From observations in northern New England, 23% of observed prey was echinoderms and 63% was crustaceans.

Unlike most other Larus gulls thermos hydration bottle with straw, they are highly predatory and frequently hunt and kill any prey smaller than themselves, behaving more like a raptor than a typical larid gull. Lacking the razor-sharp talons and curved, tearing beak of a raptor, the great black-backed gull relies on aggression, physical strength and endurance when hunting. When attacking other animals, they usually attack seabird eggs, nestlings or fledgings at the nest, perhaps most numerously terns, but also including smaller gull species as well as eiders, gannets and various alcids. In Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 10% of the stomach contents of great black-backed gulls was made up of birds, while a further 17% of stomach contents was made up of tern eggs alone. Adult or fledged juveniles of various bird species have also been predaceously attacked. Some fully-fledged or adult birds observed to be hunted in flight or on the ground by great black-backed gulls have included Anas ducks, ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) best running water belt, buffleheads (Bucephala albeola), Manx shearwaters (Puffinus puffinus), pied-billed grebes (Podilymbus podiceps), common moorhens (Gallinula chloropus), terns, Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica), coots (Fulica ssp.), hen harriers (Circus cyaneus), glossy ibises (Plegadis falcinellus) and even rock pigeons (Columba livia). When attacking other flying birds, the great black-backed gulls often pursue them on the wing and attack them by jabbing with their bill, hoping to bring down the other bird either by creating an open wound or simply via exhaustion. They will also catch flying passerines, which they typically target while the small birds are exhausted from migration and swallow them immediately. Great black-backed gull also feed on land animals, including rats (Rattus ssp.) at garbage dumps and even sickly lambs (Ovis aries).

Most foods are swallowed whole, including most fish and even other gulls. When foods are too large to be swallowed at once, they will sometimes be shaken in the bill until they fall apart into pieces. Like some other gulls, when capturing molluscs or other hard-surfaced foods such as eggs, they will fly into the air with it and drop it on rocks or hard earth to crack it open. Alternate foods, including berries and insects, are eaten when available. They will readily exploit easy food sources, including chum lines made by boats at sea. They are skilled kleptoparasites who will readily pirate fish and other prey captured by other birds and dominate over other gulls when they encounter them. At tern colonies in coastal Maine, American herring gulls (L. smithsonianus) occasionally also attack nestling and fledging terns but in a great majority of cases were immediately pirated of their catch by great black-backs. In one observation, an adult great black-back was seen to rob a female peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) of a freshly caught gadwall (Anas strepera). In another case, a third-year great black-back was observed fighting an adult female northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) off its kill, although the goshawk attempted to strike the gull before leaving. Due to their method of using intimidation while encountering other water and raptorial birds, the species has been referred to as a “merciless tyrant”. Naturally, these gulls are attracted to the surface activity of large marine animals, from Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) to humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), to capture fish driven to the surface by such creatures.

This species breeds singly or in small colonies, sometimes in the middle of a Larus argentatus colony. Young adult pair formation occurs in March or April. The following spring the same birds usually form a pair again, meeting at the previous year’s nest. If one of the birds doesn’t appear, the other bird begins looking for a new mate. Usually a single bird does not breed in that season.

They make a lined nest on the ground often on top of a rocky stack, fallen log or other obstructing object which can protect the eggs from the elements. Usually, several nest scrapes are made before the one deemed best by the parents is selected and then lined with grass, seaweed or moss or objects such as rope or plastic. When nesting on roofs in urban environments, previous year’s nests are often reused over and over again. The female lays usually three eggs sometime between late April and late June. When only two eggs are found in a nest, the reason is almost always that one egg, for one reason or another, has been destroyed. It takes around one week for the female to produce the three eggs, and the incubation doesn’t begin until all three eggs are laid. Hence all three chicks are hatched the same day. The birds are usually successful in bringing up all the three chicks.

The eggs are greenish-brown with dark speckles and blotches. Both parents participate in the incubation stage, which lasts for approximately 28 days. During this time, the birds attempt to avoid being noticed and stay silent. The breeding pair are devoted parents who both take shifts brooding the young, defending the nest and gathering food. Young great black-backed gulls leave the nest area at 50 days of age and may remain with their parents for an overall period of around six months, though most fledglings choose to congregate with other immature gulls in the search for food by fall. These gulls reach breeding maturity when they obtain adult plumage at four years, though may not successfully breed until they are six years old.

This is a relatively long-living bird. The maximum recorded age for a wild great black-backed gull is 27.1 years. This species is rarely kept in captivity, but domestically kept European herring gulls have been known to live for over 44 years and generally larger birds can outlive smaller ones. Mortality typically occurs in the early stages of life, when harsh weather conditions (including flooding) and starvation can threaten them, as well as predators. Chicks and eggs are preyed on by crows (Corvus ssp.), cats (Felis catus), other gulls, raccoons (Procyon lotor) and rats (Rattus ssp.). The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), white-tailed eagle (H. albicilla) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are the only birds known to habitually predate healthy, fully grown great black-backed gulls. A great skua (Stercorarius skua) was filmed in Scotland unsuccessfully attempting to kill a second or third year great black-backed gull. On the other hand, the slightly smaller pomarine skua (S. pomarinus) has been observed to have been predated by great black-backed gulls. In Norway, great black-backed gulls have been reported to fall prey to Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo). Killer whales (Orcinus orca) and sharks also reportedly prey upon adult and juvenile birds at sea. In some biomes, where large eagles are absent the great black-backed gull may be considered the apex predator.

Historically, the great black-backed gull was harvested for its feathers, which were used in the hat-making trade, and this species was extirpated from large parts of its range as a result of this exploitation. Today, however, its adaptability to human presence and the use of urban environments as artificial nesting sites has resulted in the great black-backed gull rapidly increasing in number and range. It is now a widespread and abundant species in its range and its numbers have increased to such high levels in some areas that it is often seen as a pest species, especially near airports where it risks collisions with airplanes, and in some coastal areas where it sometimes outcompetes or hunts rarer seabirds, such as Atlantic puffins, possibly resulting in conservationist intervention. The increase and expansion of great black-backed gulls has been attributed to increasing winter fishery activities in the North Sea. Although there are no known major threats to the great black-backed gull, high levels of toxic pollutants, which are ingested with contaminated prey, are often found in individuals and eggs, reducing reproductive success. Breeding is also interrupted by human disturbance, which can lead to eggs being abandoned, leaving them vulnerable to exposure and predation.

Great black-backed gull has a bulky, powerful beak

Larus marinus and Larus argentatus together, Øresund

Great black-backed gulls displaying

Juvenile, Cape May Point underwater smartphone case, New Jersey

Great black-backed gull nest and eggs

Chicks

Flock taking off during southern migration through Ottawa, Ontario

ID composite

Müll im Garten Eden

Müll im Garten Eden ist ein deutscher Dokumentarfilm aus dem Jahr 2012 des Regisseurs Fatih Akin biro meat tenderizer. Der Film wurde 2012 bei den Internationalen Filmfestspielen in Cannes gezeigt. Filmpremiere in Deutschland war am 6. Dezember 2012.

Der Film zeigt das türkische Dorf Çamburnu nahe Trabzon, in dessen unmittelbarer Nähe der türkische Staat eine Mülldeponie zur Müllentsorgung der umliegenden Städte gebaut hat best thermos water bottle.

Der Film begleitet den Bau und Betrieb der Deponie bei Çamburnu in den Jahren 2007 bis 2012

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. Das Dorf liegt in einem Teeanbaugebiet an der türkischen Schwarzmeerküste. Zunächst werden im stillgelegten Kupfertagebau Geotextilien ausgelegt, eine Sohle aus Gestein eingebracht und Entwässerungsrohre gelegt.

Der Bürgermeister von Çamburnu muss die Deponie genehmigen; als er darauf dringt, dass technische Voraussetzungen und gesetzliche Bestimmungen eingehalten werden, wird er wegen Behinderung des Baus verklagt. Seine Anwältin erklärt, dass es in der Türkei die einstweilige Verfügung nicht gibt, und der Bau nicht gestoppt werden kann. Selbst wenn man auf dem juristischen Weg Recht erhält, sind inzwischen bereits Fakten geschaffen worden.

Als der erste Müll herangefahren worden ist, sind die Geotextilien bereits beschädigt worden. Die Dorfbewohner leiden unter Müllgestank, übelriechendes Sickerwasser wird in den Dorfbach geleitet und fließt von dort weiter ins nahe Schwarze Meer. Proteste formieren sich. Der Deponiebetreiber lässt mehrere Masten errichten, von deren Spitzen Parfum über den Müll versprüht wird.

Der Gouverneur der Provinz erscheint im schwarzen Mercedes, hört sich an, was Dorfbewohner vorbringen, verspricht aber nichts. Nach starken Regenfällen zeigt sich, dass das Klärbecken der Deponie zu klein gebaut wurde. Dorfbewohner blockieren daraufhin die Zufahrtsstraße. Es erscheinen Mitarbeiter des Umweltbüros, die aber einen überwiegend hilfslosen Eindruck machen.

Auch der türkische Umweltminister sieht sich die Deponie an. Ihm gefällt, dass der Müll in der Deponie liegt und nicht – wie sonst üblich – auf den Strand gespült wird.

Am nördlichen Rand der Deponie soll eine Sperrmauer gebaut werden, damit der Müll nicht vom Regenwasser fortgespült wird. Vermutlich infolge der Bauarbeiten bricht eine Wand des Klärbeckens. Es läuft vollständig leer. Trotzdem wird weiterer Müll abgekippt.

Die Einwohnerzahl Çamburnus ist bereits gesunken. Junge Bewohner des Dorfs sagen, dass sie sich nicht vorstellen können, dort Kinder groß zu ziehen. Im Abspann wird eine kämpferische, ältere Dorfbewohnerin gezeigt, die – mit mehr Unterstützung – die Deponie „abgefackelt“ hätte. Die Frau ist jedoch bereits im Jahr 2011 verstorben.

Das Lexikon des internationalen Films urteilte: „Die von Sympathie für die Anwohner getragene Dokumentation von Fatih Akin rollt die Historie des Umweltskandals auf, was wie eine Realsatire aus Absurdistan wirkt. Gedreht mit dem Herzblut der persönlichen Betroffenheit, krankt der Film unübersehbar daran, dass er dramaturgisch weitgehend Stückwerk bleibt.“ ()

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La ronda de los dientes blancos

La ronda de los dientes blancos es una película filmada en colores coproducción de Argentina y Brasil dirigida por Ricardo Alberto Defilippi sobre el guion de Enrique Lastrade que, producida en 1966 pink stainless steel water bottle, nunca fue estrenada comercialmente y que tuvo como protagonistas a Delia Montero, Juan Carlos Lamas, Orlando Alvarado y Mario Benedetti.

Su director Ricardo Alberto Defilippi comenzó su vinculación con el cine cuando debutó como extra en Juvenilia, dirigida en 1943 por Augusto César Vatteone msg meat tenderizer. Después trabajó en como pizarrero, ayudante de dirección, asistente de dirección, y en 1962 dirigió su primera película: Cuerpo extraño (Cuando una mujer no quiere), sobre guion de Enrique Lastrade, protagonizada por Juan Carlos Barbieri, Francisco de Paula, Augusto Codecá y su actriz fetiche Delia Montero, que nunca fue estrenada.

Tanto La ronda de los dientes blancos de 1966 como Delincuencia juvenil de 1974, que también dirigió Defilippi no fueron estrenadas comercialmente.

Fiat 1400

Fiat 1400/1900 – modele samochodów osobowych produkowanych przez FIAT-a w latach 1950-1958. Oba modele były konstrukcyjnie identyczne, a oznaczenia odnosiły się do pojemności silnika, odpowiednio: 1395 cm³ dla modelu 1400 i 1901 cm³ dla modelu 1900. Różnice występowały w wyposażeniu i detalach nadwozia.

Samochód zadebiutował w 1950 roku na wystawie w Genewie. Był to pierwszy, całkowicie nowy powojenny projekt jaki pojawił się w gamie produkcyjnej Fiata. Po raz pierwszy Fiat zastosował też nadwozie samonośne opracowane we współpracy z firmą Chrysler, którego projekt stworzył Dante Giacosa. Inspiracja samochodami amerykańskimi widoczna jest również w organizacji wnętrza samochodu m.in glass bottles singapore. we wspólnej kanapie zainstalowanej z przodu zamiast oddzielnych foteli kierowcy i pasażera. Z tego powodu zarówno dźwignia zmiany biegów zainstalowana została przy kierownicy, a dźwignia hamulca ręcznego w tablicy rozdzielczej. Silnik 1395 cm3 został opracowany tak, aby poprzez wydłużenie skoku tłoka można było uzyskać zamianę pojemności i mocniejszą wersję jednostki. W modelu 1400 zadebiutował również silnik wysokoprężny jako źródło napędu samochodu osobowego Fiat. Samochód był wyposażony w pełny system wentylacji i ogrzewania. Po raz pierwszy Fiat użył również w układzie przeniesienia napędu sprzęgła hydrokinetycznego (w modelu 1900).

W okresie produkcji nastąpiło kilka zmian konstrukcyjnych dotyczących głównie jednostek napędowych oraz zmian stylistyki nadwozia. Samochody z takimi zmianami prezentowano jako nowe serie oznaczone odpowiednio 1400/1900, 1400A/1900A i 1400B/1900B.

Pojazd produkowany był w latach 1953–1963 w Hiszpanii jako SEAT 1400 oraz w latach 1954–1961 w Jugosławii jako Zastava 1400BJ.

Zadebiutował w 1950 roku w trzech wersjach nadwoziowych: sedan, coupe i kabriolet. Jednostką napędową był 4-cylindrowy, rzędowy silnik górnozaworowy o pojemności 1395 cm³ i mocy 44 KM, który pozwalał na osiągnięcie prędkość 120 km/h. Przeniesienie napędu realizowane było poprzez 4-biegową skrzynkę biegów (plus bieg wsteczny) na koła tylne. Biegi 2 – 4 były zsynchronizowane.

W 1953 roku na wystawie motoryzacyjnej w Turynie przedstawiono wersję Fiata 1400 z silnikiem wysokoprężnym. Jednostka ta pochodziła z samochodów dostawczych produkowanych przez Fiata, a wykorzystana była również w debiutującym w 1951 roku modelu Campagnola. Silnik o pojemności 1901 cm³ ze wstępną komorą spalania osiągał moc 40 KM przy stopniu sprężania 20:1. Pomimo pojemności 1901 cm³ model oznaczano jako Fiat 1400 pozostawiając oznaczenie 1900 dla modelu z silnikiem benzynowym o takiej samej pojemności.

Wyprodukowano ok 77 tys. egzemplarzy modelu 1400 z czego ok. 13,5 tys. z silnikiem wysokoprężnym.

W roku 1952 zaprezentowano model Fiat 1900. Bazował on konstrukcyjnie na modelu 1400 a różnice dotyczyły jednostki napędowej, wyposażenia i szczegółów nadwozia.

Do napędu wykorzystano silnik o pojemności 1901 cm³ o mocy 60 KM co powalało osiągnąć 130 km/h. Silnik ten był wersją jednostki napędowej z modelu 1400 o zwiększonym skoku tłoka z 66 do 90 mm. Do przeniesienia napędu zastosowano 5-biegową skrzynkę biegów (plus bieg wsteczny). Podobnie jak w modelu 1400 do wyboru były wersje nadwoziowe 4-drzwiowy sedan, 2-drzwiowe coupe (określane jako Fiat 1900 Granluce), oraz wersja z otwartym nadwoziem, która później została zaadaptowana na potrzeby policji jako Torpedo Polizia. W wersji tej moc podniesiono do 63 KM.

Nadwozie prawie identyczne z modelem 1400 wyróżniała ozdobna listwa biegnąca z boku poprzez drzwi i błotniki.

Wyprodukowano ok. 10 tys. egzemplarzy wszystkich wersji waterproof purse.

W 1954 roku zaprezentowano model 1400A. Różnice dotyczyły jednostki napędowej oraz niewielkich zamian wyglądu nadwozia.

Moc silnika benzynowego podniesiona została do 50 KM co zwiększyło prędkość maksymalną do 125 km/h. W dalszym ciągu oferowano wersję z silnikiem wysokoprężnym.

W nadwoziu zastosowano inną atrapę chłodnicy i kierunkowskazy. Pod bocznymi szybami pojawiła się ozdobna listwa, a na zderzakach dodano kły, zmianom poddano także tylne światła.

Wyprodukowano ponad 50 tys small waist pack. egzemplarzy tej wersji.

Zmiany podobne jak w modelu 1400 zastosowano również w Fiacie 1900A. Tutaj moc silnika została podniesiona do 70 KM co zwiększyło prędkość maksymalną 135  km/h. Zewnętrznym wyróżnikiem wersji dalej pozostała listwa ozdobna z boku nadwozia. Oferowano sedana oraz coupe (Granluce) thermos 18 ounce hydration bottle.

Powstało 7027 egzemplarzy.

W nowej wersji modelu 1400 zamiany konstrukcyjne dotyczyły hamulców i zawieszenia. Moc silnika podniesiona została do 58 KM (prędkość maksymalna 135 km/h). Moc silnika wysokoprężnego podniesiono o 3 KM. W nadwoziu najwyraźniejszą zmianą było wprowadzenie dwukolorowego nadwozia oraz lampy przeciwmgielnej zamontowanej na środku atrapy chłodnicy. Wewnątrz zamianie uległ wygląd deski rozdzielczej.

Wyprodukowano ok. 40 tys. egzemplarzy tej wersji.

Zmiany konstrukcyjne z modelu 1400 przeniesiono również do wersji 1900. Tutaj moc silnika podniesiono do 80 KM (prędkość maksymalna 145 km/h). Dwukolorowe nadwozie od wersji 1400 odróżniało się innym układem ozdobnej listwy na przednich błotnikach. Oferowano w dalszym ciągu wersję sedan i coupe (Granluce).

W 1957 roku dokonano niewielkiej zmiany stylistycznej w wersji sedan zapożyczonej z wersji coupe. Widoczna jest ona w układzie listw ozdobnych na tylnych błotnikach.

Powstało ok. 2500 egzemplarzy w obu wersjach nadwoziowych.

Fiat 1400 kabriolet pierwszej serii

Fiat 1400A

Fiat 1400B

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125p • 126p/Maluch • 126 Cabrio • 508 Łazik • 518 Mazur • 612 • 618 • 621 • Austro-Fiat • Łada • NSU-Fiat • Premier • Puch 500 • SEAT • Simca-Fiat • Tofaş • Zastava

Abarth 131 Rally • Turbina

Зазворкова, Стелла

14 апреля 1922(1922-04-14)

Прага,
Чехословакия

18 мая 2005(2005-05-18) (83 года)

Прага,
Чехия

Чехословакия&nbsp meat mallet substitute;Чехословакия
 Чехия

театр, кинематограф

ID 0959184

Стелла Зазворкова (чеш. Stella Zázvorková) — чешская актриса театра и кино.

Стелла Зазворкова родилась 14 апреля 1922 в Праге. Играла в театре и снималась в кино. Её мужем был известный чешский актёр Милош Копецкий. Умерла 18 мая 2005 года в Праге.

Transalaigebirge

Das Transalaigebirge thermos drinking flask; im Vordergrund der Fluss Kysylsuu (Wachsch) und das Alaital

Das Transalaigebirge oder die Transalaikette oder der Transalai (kirgisisch Чоң Алай кырка тоосу) ist eine Hochgebirgskette im Norden des Pamirgebirges, welche entlang der Grenze zwischen Tadschikistan und Kirgisistan verläuft. Der äußerste Osten der Gebirgsgruppe reicht über die Grenze zur Volksrepublik China hinein.

Der Gebirgszug hat eine Länge von 240&nbsp socks for football;km. Er erstreckt sich zwischen dem vom Kysylsuu durchflossenen Alaital im Norden und dem Flusstal des Muksu im Süden. Die Nordflanke des östlichen Transalai wird vom Kysylsuu, Quellfluss des Kaxgar online soccer shirts, die Südflanke vom Markansu entwässert football shirts cheap uk.

Das Transalaigebirge ist durch die beiden Pässe Tersagar und Kyzylart in drei Abschnitte gegliedert. Im Mittelabschnitt liegt der höchste Gipfel des Transalai, der 7134 m hohe Pik Lenin.

Vom Transalai zweigt im Mittelabschnitt die Zulumartkette nach Süden ab. Südöstlich liegt die Sarikolkette, südwestlich die Kette der Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Im Folgenden eine Auswahl der höchsten Berge, sortiert in West-Ost-Richtung (in Kursivschrift Gipfel mit geringerer Schartenhöhe):

Westteil:

Zentralteil:

Ostteil:

Borgore

Асаф Боргер

20 октября 1987(1987-10-20) (29 лет)

Тель-Авив, Израиль

 Израиль

Диджей, продюсер

Драм-н-бэйс
Дабстеп
Трэп
Голландский хаус

Diplo, Tomba, Shabira, Dev, Documet One, Figure, Asking Alexandria, Dotcom, Tisoki, Ookay, Sikdope, Waka Flocka Flame, Jauz, M.I.A, Paige best running belt for women, Skrillex, Getter, Caked Up и др.

Buygore records, Sumerian

Borgore (настоящее имя Асаф Боргер, англ steel water bottleAsaf Borger; 20 октября 1987, Тель-Авив) — израильский диджей и продюсер, бывший барабанщик дэт-метал-группы Shabira. Является основателем лейбла Buygore Records.

Стиль Borgore известен как «Gorestep», его музыка является сочетанием Drum’n’Bass, DubStep football uniform creator, Trap, POP, Hip-hop, electro house.

В одном из своих интервью Borgore дал понять, что его имя является сочетанием его фамилии cheap football t shirts, Borger, и слова «gore» (англ. запёкшаяся кровь), в результате чего получается Borgore.

Sofie av Norge og Sverige

Sofie av Norge og Sverige (Sophie av Nassau) (Sophia) (født 9. juli 1836, død 30. desember 1913), var dronning av Norge og Sverige. Hun var datter av hertug Vilhelm I av Nassau og prinsesse Pauline av Württemberg i hertugdømmet Nassau. Sofia giftet seg med den fremtidige kongen Oscar II 6. juni 1857 på slottet i Wiesbaden-Biebrich. I Sverige brukte hun navneformen Sophia, i Norge Sophie.

Sofie var liberal og hadde en modererende innflytelse på sin mann, blant annet ved krisesituasjonene i unionen mellom Sverige og Norge. Hun var sterkt skeptisk til den tyske keiser Vilhelm II, som hun anså som militaristisk. Dronning Sofie tilbrakte sine sommerferier i perioden 1892–1904 i Norge, på gården Skinnarbøl ved Kongsvinger. Som norgesvenn bidro hun til at det ikke ble krig mellom Sverige og Norge ved unionsoppløsningen i 1905.

I Oslo er Sofies gate og Sofies plass oppkalt etter henne.

Sofia opprettet som hertuginne i 1860 «hemmet för frigifna kvinnor» i Stockholm. Det var en institusjon som skulle hjelpe kvinner som hadde vært dømt og fengslet. meat tenderizer uses. Hjemmet ble flyttet flere ganger og skiftet etterhvert navn til Drotningens skyddshem.

Sofia hadde lest og var beveget av Florence Nightingales tekster. I 1881 ble Sofia syk ved et besøk i England og fikk personlig bli kjent med sykehus der. I Sverige måtte hun lete etter en lege som ville støtte henne i å utdanne og trene unge kvinner til sykepleiere. Hun fant den kjente legen John Berg og det hele startet med en gruppe på Sabbatsbergs sykehus nyttårsaften 1884. Den egentlige starten på utdanningen av sjuksköterskor i Sverige startet med Röda korsets sjuksköterskeskola i 1867. I Norge grunnla Cathinka Guldberg sykepleierutdannelsen i 1868.

1889 åpnet en kombinert skole og sykehus. Mottoet «Allt till Guds ära» som det sto det over inngangen, sier noe om den høye moralen som var krav. Sofiahemmet var den første sykepleierutdanningen, og den ble mønsterutdanning for sykepleiere i Sverige. Sofia fulgte nøye med på Sofiahemmet hele livet.

1. februar 1892 startet søstrene Agnes og Nanna Fleischer en skole for vanføre i Kongens gate. Neste år bevilget stortinget kr 960 til «Fripladser for udenbys fattige», og det ble opprettet et fond gjennom «Foreningen til understøttelse af trængende vanføre» Skolen lærte håndverksfag, allminnelige skolefag og hadde et internat. Hensikten med skolen var at vanføre skulle ha mulighet til å besørge seg selv. Skolen skiftet straks karakter fra å være en skole til å være et hjem med skole. Etter en salgsutstilling i 1894 økte bevilgningen fra stortinget og skolens popularitet.

Fra 1872 til 1897 var det 25 år med Sofie og Oscar på tronen. Det ble samlet inn penger i anledning jubileet running drink bottle belt. I 1896 besøkte Oscar II en utstillingen av skolens arbeid. Det kom så i 1897 en beskjed om at det var opprettet et fond med kr 300.000 som skulle utelukkende gå til det beste for vanføre i Norge. Fondet økte med kr 100.000 etter Dr. A. Willes død.

12

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. desember 1900 ble grunnstenen lagt. 8. september 1902 åpnet Kong Oscar II Sophies Minde i Skådalen. Først hadde skolen 25 elever. I løpet av det første året økte elevtallet med 31.

Døveskolen overtok Sophies Minde i 1935, men bygningen ble senere revet og lå der Skådalen kompetansesenter i dag ligger. I 1927 åpnet en sentral anstalt og de første elevene flyttet fra Skådalen til Trondheimsveien. Kronprinsesse Märthas Institutt og Kysthospitalet ble tilknyttet i 1965

I 1994 ble driften overtatt av rikshospitalet. I 2003 ble Sophies Minde Ortopedi AS opprettet og eid av Rikshospitalet. Det flyttet inn i lokaler på gamle Aker sykehus i Trondheimsveien 235.

Sophies Minde har avdelinger


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