Shulba Sutras

The Shulba Sutras or Śulbasūtras (Sanskrit śulba: “string, cord, rope”) are sutra texts belonging to the Śrauta ritual and containing geometry related to fire-altar construction.

The Shulba Sutras are part of the larger corpus of texts called the Shrauta Sutras, considered to be appendices to the Vedas. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. Unique fire-altar shapes were associated with unique gifts from the Gods. For instance, “he who desires heaven is to construct a fire-altar in the form of a falcon”; “a fire-altar in the form of a tortoise is to be constructed by one desiring to win the world of Brahman” and “those who wish to destroy existing and future enemies should construct a fire-altar in the form of a rhombus”.

The four major Shulba Sutras jaccard meat, which are mathematically the most significant, are those attributed to Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana. Their language is late Vedic Sanskrit, pointing to a composition roughly during the 1st millennium BCE. The oldest is the sutra attributed to Baudhayana, possibly compiled around 800 BCE to 600 BCE. while the youngest content may date to about 200 CE.

The sutras contain discussion and non-axiomatic demonstrations of cases of the Pythagorean theorem and Pythagorean triples. It is also implied and cases presented in the earlier work of Apastamba and Baudhayana, although there is no consensus on whether or not Apastamba’s rule is derived from Mesopotamia. In Baudhayana, the rules are given as follows:

1.9. The diagonal of a square produces double the area [of the square].
1.12. The areas [of the squares] produced separately by the lengths of the breadth of a rectangle together equal the area [of the square] produced by the diagonal.
1.13. This is observed in rectangles having sides 3 and 4, 12 and 5, 15 and 8, 7 and 24, 12 and 35, 15 and 36.

The Satapatha Brahmana and the Taittiriya Samhita were probably also aware of the Pythagoras theorem. Seidenberg (1983) argued that either “Old Babylonia got the theorem of Pythagoras from India or that Old Babylonia and India got it from a third source”. Seidenberg suggested that this source might be Sumerian and may predate 1700 BC. Staal 1999 illustrates an application of the Pythagorean Theorem in the Shulba Sutra to convert a rectangle to a square of equal area.

Apastamba’s rules for building right angles in altars use the following Pythagorean triples:

The same triples are easily derived from an old Babylonian rule, which makes Mesopotamian influence on the sutras likely.

The Baudhayana Shulba sutra gives the construction of geometric shapes such as squares and rectangles. It also gives, sometimes approximate, geometric area-preserving transformations from one geometric shape to another. These include transforming a square into a rectangle, an isosceles trapezium, an isosceles triangle, a rhombus, and a circle, and transforming a circle into a square. In these texts approximations, such as the transformation of a circle into a square, appear side by side with more accurate statements. As an example, the statement of circling the square is given in Baudhayana as:

2.9. If it is desired to transform a square into a circle, [a cord of length] half the diagonal [of the square] is stretched from the centre to the east [a part of it lying outside the eastern side of the square]; with one-third [of the part lying outside] added to the remainder [of the half diagonal], the [required] circle is drawn.

and the statement of squaring the circle is given as:

2.10. To transform a circle into a square, the diameter is divided into eight parts; one [such] part after being divided into twenty-nine parts is reduced by twenty-eight of them and further by the sixth [of the part left] less the eighth [of the sixth part].
2.11. Alternatively, divide [the diameter] into fifteen parts and reduce it by two of them; this gives the approximate side of the square [desired].

The constructions in 2.9 and 2.10 give a value of π as 3.088, while the construction in 2.11 gives π as 3.004.

Altar construction also led to an estimation of the square root of 2 as found in three of the sutras. In the Baudhayana sutra it appears as:

2.12. The measure is to be increased by its third and this [third] again by its own fourth less the thirty-fourth part [of that fourth]; this is [the value of] the diagonal of a square [whose side is the measure].

which leads to the value of the square root of two as being:












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{\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}\approx 1+{\frac {1}{3}}+{\frac {1}{3\cdot 4}}-{\frac {1}{3\cdot 4\cdot 34}}={\frac {577}{408}}=1.4142…}

One conjecture about how such an approximation was obtained is that it was taken by the formula:

which is an approximation that follows a rule given by the twelfth century Muslim mathematician Al-Hassar. The result is correct to 5 decimal places.

This formula is also similar in structure to the formula found on a Mesopotamian tablet from the Old Babylonian period (1900-1600 BCE):

which expresses


{\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}

in the sexagesimal system, and which too is accurate up to 5 decimal places (after rounding).

Indeed, an early method for calculating square roots can be found in some Sutras, the method involves the recursive formula:









{\displaystyle {\sqrt {x}}\approx {\sqrt {x-1}}+{\frac {1}{2\cdot {\sqrt {x-1}}}}}

for large values of x, which bases itself on the non-recursive identity










{\displaystyle {\sqrt {a^{2}+r}}\approx a+{\frac {r}{2\cdot a}}}

for values of r extremely small relative to a.

Before the period of the Sulbasutras was at an end, the Brahmi numerals had definitely begun to appear (c. 300BCE) and the similarity with modern-day numerals is clear to see. More importantly even still was the development of the concept of decimal place value.[citation needed] Certain rules given by the famous Indian grammarian Pāṇini (c. 500 BCE) add a zero suffix (a suffix with no phonemes in it) to a base to form words, and this can be said somehow to imply the concept of the mathematical zero.

It has also been suggested the sutras contain the concept of incommensurability.

The Types of Defense in Volleyball

There are two predominant defensive concepts in volleyball: perimeter defense and rotational defense. In addition to those two basic styles, man-up or “red” defense has regained some popularity. Teams may adjust each of these defensive schemes to fit their talent and match-up against their opponent. Each defensive type has particular strengths and weaknesses.
As the name suggests, players rotate into their “read” position based on how the play is developing. For instance, if the opponent sets to its outside hitter, the middle front and right-side front players block. The outside blocker stays home and covers the rest of the front court. The right back defender edges up behind the blockers to pick up balls tipped over them. The left back is responsible for the deep angle ball. The middle back rotates to the same sideline where the ball was set. The rotation changes if the opponent sets to its right-side hitter or the middle hitter.
In the perimeter defense, players start in the same base position as in rotational defense. But as the play unfolds, there is less movement into the “read” positions

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. This is a good defense to dig out hard-driven balls. It is more vulnerable to tips, relying on players to take away those plays with their athletic ability. As such, it is more popular with men’s teams with more size and range.
As the name suggests, the man up or “red” defense moves a back player up to support the front three players. This protects the middle of court from middle attacks and tips. It keeps the wing players deep. This formation minimizes the movement from base position to defensive zone. The deeper base positions allow players to keep most plays in front of them.
Within these basic concepts, countless adjustments can be made to suit the ability of the team. Hybrid defensive schemes are common. As volleyball coaching legend Bill Neville once said, “Defense should be designed so that it allows for putting the best diggers in areas that will most often be attacked.”

Jean-Michel Meurice

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Jean-Michel Meurice est un documentariste et artiste-peintre français né en 1938 à Lille. Il est cofondateur du groupe Supports/Surfaces.

Auteur de nombreux films documentaires, le Grand Prix National de la Création Audovisuelle lui est décerné en 1992.

Ses œuvres sont exposées [précision nécessaire]. En 1978 il a créé deux décors pour des vases en porcelaine à la Manufacture nationale de Sèvres. Il a notamment réalisé l’affiche de l’édition 1996 des Internationaux de France de tennis.

Il est l’une des personnalités à l’origine de la création de la chaîne de télévision franco-allemande Arte, dont il a été le directeur de 1986 à 1989.

Dieter Winderlich

Dieter Winderlich (* 4 cheap jerseys for sale. Dezember 1938) ist ein ehemaliger deutscher Polizeioffizier. Er war von 1987 bis 1990 Stellvertreter des Ministers des Innern (MdI) der DDR und 1990 der letzte Chef der Deutschen Volkspolizei.

Der Sohn eines Arbeiters, der 1947 Volkspolizist geworden war, ging in der DDR zur Schule, erlernte den Beruf eines Erziehers und erwarb im Fernstudium den Fachschulabschluss als Unterstufenlehrer. Im Frühjahr 1961 folgte er einem Aufruf der FDJ und wurde wie sein Vater Angehöriger der DVP. Er schloss sich der SED an und absolvierte ein mehrjähriges Studium an der Hochschule des Ministeriums für Innere Angelegenheiten der UdSSR. Von 1970 bis 1974 fungierte er als Leiter der Jugendstrafanstalt Wriezen im Kreis Bad Freienwalde. Als Oberst der VP war er von 1980 bis 1987 stellvertretender Leiter der Verwaltung Strafvollzug des MdI. Im Februar 1987 folgte er Günter Giel als Stellvertreter des Ministers des Innern (zuständig für das Archivwesen, die Feuerwehr how to remove lint balls from couch, den Strafvollzug und die Kriminalpolizei). 1988 wurde er von Erich Honecker zum Generalmajor ernannt.

Am 10. Januar 1990 wurde er von Innenminister Lothar Ahrendt als Chef der DVP eingesetzt und war damit zugleich der erste Stellvertreter des Ministers. Er blieb bis zum Regierungswechsel im April 1990 auf diesem Posten, wurde am 1. Mai 1990 vom Generalmajor zum Chefinspekteur umattestiert und von Innenminister Peter-Michael Diestel zum Leiter der Abteilung für die Bund-Länder-Zusammenarbeit im Ministerium für Innere Angelegenheiten berufen.

Winderlich ist Mitglied der Initiativgemeinschaft zum Schutz der sozialen Rechte (ISOR).

Sender Ravensburg (Wilhelmskirch)

Der Sender Ravensburg ist ein stillgelegter Rundfunksender für Mittelwelle, den die Media Broadcast zur Ausstrahlung des Deutschlandfunks im Landkreis Ravensburg in Baden-Württemberg betrieb. Er befindet sich einen knappen Kilometer nordöstlich von Wilhelmskirch, einem Ortsteil der Gemeinde Horgenzell, auf einer Höhenlage von 581 m ü. NN und ist nicht zu verwechseln mit dem Fernsehsender Ravensburg auf dem nahegelegenen Berg Höchsten.

Die Anlage wurde am 23 what is a meat mallet. August 1951 in Betrieb genommen und gehörte bis 1964 dem damaligen Südwestfunk, der dort auf der Frequenz 1538 kHz (ab 1962 auf 665 kHz) sein erstes Hörfunkprogramm mit einer Sendeleistung von 20 kW ausstrahlte. Zusammen mit den Standorten Bad Dürrheim und Reutlingen bildete der Sender ein Gleichwellennetz.

Am 30. September 1962 nahm der Südwestfunk für die damalige Deutsche Bundespost (heute Deutsche Telekom) einen weiteren Sender zur Verbreitung des Deutschlandfunks auf der Frequenz 755 kHz mit einer Sendeleistung von 20 kW in Betrieb. Beide Programme wurden mittels einer Weiche über die gleiche Antennenanlage ausgestrahlt. Nach der Fertigstellung des neuen Bodenseesenders bei Meßkirch im Jahr 1964 stellte der Südwestfunk seinen Sendebetrieb am Standort Ravensburg ein und übergab die Anlage an die Deutsche Bundespost. 1968 wurde die Sendeleistung des Deutschlandfunks auf 100 kW erhöht. Da durch diese Leistungserhöhung nachts starke Ausblendungen notwendig gewesen wären, wurde der Sender während der Nachtstunden abgeschaltet. Seit dem Inkrafttreten des Genfer Wellenplans im Jahr 1978, der auch eine Frequenzanpassung auf 756 kHz zur Folge hatte, sendete die Anlage wieder im Dauerbetrieb im Amplitudenmodulation (AM). Die Anlage war digitaltauglich für Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM)-Aussendung, lief aber ab 1999 nur in der Betriebsart Dynamische Amplitudenmodulation (DAM).

Als Antenne kamen zuletzt zwei gegen Erde isolierte selbststrahlende Sendemasten von 120 Meter Höhe zum Einsatz, die 1951 und 1978 errichtet wurden. Die geographischen Koordinaten der beiden Sendemaste lauten und .

Die Ausstrahlung des Programmes auf der Frequenz 756 kHz wurde am 31. Dezember 2015 um 23:50 Uhr planmäßig eingestellt.

Die beiden 120 Meter hohen Sendemasten des Senders Ravensburg

Luftaufnahme von Wilhelmskirch mit dem Sender Ravensburg

Höhendiagramm der Sendemasten der LW- und MW-Sender des DLF

Audio Video Interleave


Audio Video Interleave (AVI) ist ein vom Softwarehersteller Microsoft definiertes Video-Containerformat, das von dem für Windows 3.1 eingeführten RIFF (Resource Interchange File Format) abgeleitet ist. „Audio Video Interleave“ bedeutet, dass Audio- und Videodaten ineinander verzahnt, also „interleaved“ abgespeichert werden (Siehe auch Interleaving).

Die erste Definition von AVI ist so alt wie die Multimedia-PCs. Das Format wurde 1992 von Microsoft im Rahmen der Video for Windows Programmierschnittstelle geschaffen, um die Wiedergabe von audiovisuellen Daten innerhalb Windows zu ermöglichen. In einer AVI-Datei können mehrere Video-, Audio- und Text-Untertiteldatenströme vorhanden sein, die wiederum mit verschiedenen Verfahren kodiert sein können. Der Typ eines Videostreams wird über FourCCs (Four Character Code) gespeichert, für Audiostreams kommen TwoCCs zum Einsatz. Zum Kodieren oder Dekodieren wird für jeden Stream ein entsprechender Codec benötigt. Die meisten AVI-Dateien nutzen die Erweiterungen, die von der Matrox-OpenDML-Gruppe im Februar 1996 vorgestellt wurden. Diese Dateien werden von Microsoft in begrenztem Umfang unterstützt und sind inoffiziell als AVI 2.0 bekannt.

Einige dieser Beschränkungen lassen sich mitunter umgehen. So ermöglicht zum Beispiel der FFmpeg Encoder Vorbis-Audio in AVI-Dateien zu verwenden. Meist allerdings nicht ohne Nachteile wie stark erhöhtes Datenaufkommen (Overhead) oder Unverträglichkeit mit Hard- oder Software.

Diese Umstände führten zur Entwicklung anderer, neuer Containerformate wie Matroska, Ogg Media oder auch dem MP4-Containerformat.

Eine AVI-1.0-Datei besteht aus einer RIFF-Datei mit einer einzelnen AVI-Liste, eine AVI 2.0-Datei enthält weitere AVIX-Listen. Jede AVI- und AVIX-Liste ist nicht größer als 2 GB. Im Falle einer AVI 2.0-Datei verlangt die Spezifikation, dass die erste RIFF-Liste 1 GB nicht überschreitet. Dieser Punkt wird jedoch von einigen Anwendungen beim Erstellen solcher Dateien ignoriert. Die AVI-LIST enthält eine Liste mit den Headern, eine Liste mit den eigentlichen Daten und einen optionalen Chunk für Index-Einträge.

Eine AVI-Datei enthält meistens jeweils ein Bild in einem Block, genannt Chunk. Abweichend davon können mehrere Bilder dann gemeinsam in einem Chunk untergebracht werden, wenn im Header angegeben ist seattle football jersey, dass der Index zwangsläufig genutzt werden muss, um die einzelnen Bilder zu finden.

Dieser üblicherweise enthaltene Index zählt alle Frames (Video, Audio, Untertitel) mit Position und Größe auf. Für AVI 1.0 wird er nicht zwangsläufig gefordert. Zeitstempel sind nur implizit enthalten belt water bottle. Im Falle von AVI 1 compression football jerseys.0 befindet sich der Index am Ende der Datei, im Falle von AVI 2.0 kommt ein zweistufiger Index zum Einsatz. Die erste Stufe befindet sich dann für jeden Stream im Header dieses Streams, die zweite Stufe befindet sich mitten in den Video/Audio-Daten. Die Blockgröße für die zweite Stufe des Index ist nicht festgelegt, aus formattechnischen Gründen muss jedoch mindestens ein Block pro Stream und pro 4 GB vorhanden sein. Da eine Datei unter Umständen nur korrekt abgespielt werden kann, wenn diese Informationen vorliegen, vor allem wenn Teile des Datenstroms beschädigt sind, ist AVI als Streaming-Format ungeeignet.

Im Header kann zusätzlich angegeben werden, dass der Index genutzt werden muss, um Datenblöcke zu finden. Das ist relevant, wenn die Daten innerhalb der AVI-Datei nicht in Abspielreihenfolge vorliegen oder mehrere Frames, z. B. mehrere Bilder, in einem einzigen Chunk vorliegen. Das Packen mehrerer Bilder in einen Chunk erlaubt es, Overhead zu sparen, denn jeder Chunk zieht, einen Index-Eintrag nicht eingerechnet, 8 Bytes Overhead nach sich, verringert aber die Chance, unbeschädigte Teile teilweise beschädigter Dateien wiedergeben zu können what is meat tenderizer and what does it do.

Da das AVI-Format auf der x86-Architektur seinen Ursprung hat, sind die darin enthaltenen Zahlen im Little-Endian-Format gehalten.

Five Types of Fitness Training

Five major types of fitness training include flexibility exercise, dynamic strength-training, static strength-training, aerobic exercise and circuit training. A solid workout plan will incorporate all five of these major fitness training types to improve your health.
Flexibility training is among the most important types of fitness training because it provides a foundation for all your other exercise types. These stretching exercises reduce your risk of injury, improve your flexibility and range of motion, and serve as a solid warm-up for more vigorous exercise. Additionally, yoga can strengthen and relax your muscles, while tai chi can reduce stress and improve your balance. Flexibility exercises are an excellent way to improve your posture and breathing.
Dynamic strength training is considered an anaerobic exercise, and is also known as isotonic exercise. This type of exercise strengthens your muscles over a full-range of motion. Weightlifting and calisthenics are examples of dynamic strength-training. This type of exercise uses resistance to work your muscles through a completed motion, such as performing a bench press, leg press or situp.
Static strength-training is also considered an anaerobic exercise, and is also known as isometric exercise. This type of exercise helps you to maintain muscle strength and tone. Isometrics involve contracting a muscle without moving any joints

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. Isometric exercises come in two types: submaximal and maximal. Submaximal exercises involve contracting your muscles with less than your maximum strength, such as holding a dumbbell steady with your arm fully extended outward. Maximal exercises involve contracting your muscles with all your strength, such as pushing against an immovable object.
Aerobic training strengthens your cardiovascular system by increasing your heart rate and breathing. These exercises use large muscle groups to perform rhythmic actions for a sustained period of time. Typically, they are performed for longer than 15 minutes and should maintain your heart rate at between 60 percent to 80 percent of your maximum heart rate. Examples of aerobic exercise include fast walking, jogging, running, stair steppers, elliptical and swimming.
Circuit training combines strength-training with aerobic exercise. This type of exercise involves jogging between exercise stations. At individual stations, you perform different flexibility, dynamic strength training and static strength training exercises. By jogging between the stations, you maintain an elevated heart rate throughout the duration of the circuit. Typically

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, you perform each station for 30 to 60 seconds and continue the overall circuit for 30 to 60 minutes. This is an effective option to break-up the monotony of your usual workout routine and can be performed indoors during poor weather. To save on space indoors, you can simply run in place for 30 to 60 seconds between exercises.


Opheliac is the second studio album by Emilie Autumn released in September 2006 by Trisol Music Group GmbH. Opheliac was recorded at Mad Villain Studios, Chicago, United States. It is the first album by the artist to receive widespread distribution around the world. All of Autumn’s previous albums were only available through her own independent record label, Traitor Records glass drinking bottles with lids.

The album Opheliac was preceded by the Opheliac EP, released in Spring 2006. This was a preview of the full-length album, and featured the first six tracks plus “Marry Me” and “Thank God I’m Pretty”, the latter as a hidden track following the former. However, track 5 “I Want My Innocence Back” does not play on any one of the copies of the EP, due to a manufacturing error.

In addition to the musical and spoken-word tracks, Opheliac features live concert footage, clips from her performance of “Misery Loves Company” on the WGN Morning Show on January 12, 2006, and three short video clips entitled “Inside the Asylum: Lessons in Being a Wayward Victorian Girl”.

Opheliac was originally released as a limited edition digipak in Europe on September 1, 2006. Then it was released worldwide on September 22, 2006, Emilie Autumn’s birthday. When this limited edition sold out, it was released in a standard jewelcase edition on February 5, 2007. There is no difference in musical content between the two versions, however, the digipak edition includes an additional “Opheliac” poster.

At some point, a Russian printed version of Opheliac became available. It only features disc one of the “double disk” album, thus, the Russian album normally sells for a lower price (on eBay, prices have been as low as £3, but as high as a normal edition of Opheliac).

As of August 6, 2008 sweater pilling razor, Emilie announced that she will be releasing Opheliac Nationwide in music stores across the US on October 7, 2008. The US release features exclusive tracks, such as “The Art of Suicide – Acoustic” and out-takes from the Opheliac recording sessions.

A third issuing of Opheliac, entitled The Deluxe Edition, was released by The End Records in October 2009 to coincide with her first American tour.

The album was written solely by Autumn. The name Opheliac derives from the song of the same name, which also served as the album’s lead single. The song’s name is derived from the character Ophelia from Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, whom the song is about.

Emilie has described the word “Opheliac” as meaning “to explain the condition of a person have the characteristics of ‘Ophelia’ and the ‘Ophelia’ archetype. While the original Ophelia did indeed go ‘mad’, it was not primarily caused by her boyfriend knocking off her dad, but rather by not only Hamlet environmentally friendly water bottles, but also all the men in her life manipulating and pushing her to the point of no alternative.”

The song “Shalott” is based on the poem “The Lady of Shalott” by Alfred, Lord Tennyson.

She also talks about her bipolar disorder in songs such as “God Help Me”, “Swallow” glass water bottle whole foods, and “Misery Loves Company”.

The songs “I Want My Innocence Back” and “Gothic Lolita” were inspired by the abuse Autumn went through as a child. Lolita also being the title and nickname of a young girl who is forced into a relationship with an older man in Vladimir Nabokov’s novel Lolita.

In August 2009, Emilie released a companion “album” to Opheliac. This “album” consisted of an interview/chat between Emilie and her “sound guy” Inkydust. The discussion covers everything from the musical backing tracks to metaphors used in the lyrics. Containing 15 tracks at a length of approximately 8 hours, the album is currently available from Emilie’s official store, AmazonMP3, and iTunes.

Oscar Patric Sturzen-Becker

Oscar Patric Sturzen-Becker, pseudonym Orvar Odd, (født 28. november 1811 i Stockholm, død 16. februar 1869 i Helsingborg) var en svensk publicist og digter.

Sturzen-Becker debuterede 1831 som ung student med et af Tegnér påvirket digt Romarskölden, vandt året efter Svenska Akademiens anden præmie for et nyt digt, tog ansættelse under Finansdepartementet, men udgav 1834 et lille blad Arlekin, som foranledigede, at han (indtil 1843) knyttedes til Aftonbladet, hvor han meddelte Memoirer över den förflutna veckan og senere rejseindtryk fra Tyskland og Frankrig i En utflygt ur boet (1842), og han vandt ry for sine letskrevne, livfulde causerier og og smånoveller Med en bit krita (1841), Med en bit blyerts (1842) og Ur Stockholmslifvet (1844), ypperlige skildringer af hovedstadslivets forskellige typer og fremtoninger. Derimod vandt hverken Stormfoglarna (1838) eller vaudevillen Bellman i Mariefred (1842) anerkendelse, og det samme gælder den samling af ironiske og politiske digte, han 1844 udgav under titlen Min fattiga sångmö. At han her med energi og varme henpeger på sociale misforhold og uretfærdigheder, bemærkede samtiden knap.

Han brød op fra Stockholm 1844 og tog til Skåne; han kom derved i berøring med Danmark og var bosat i København 1844—1847 og 1854—1863. Den skandinaviske idékreds, som derved åbnedes for ham, bestemte hans nærmeste produktion som skandinavisk og politisk. Han modtog af Skandinavisk Selskab opfordring til at holde forelæsninger over den nyeste svenske litteratur, og han gjorde det på en måde, som vakte berettiget anerkendlse. Ellers er hans produktion og de bladforetagender how can i tenderize steak, han under forskellige navne, Hinsidan Sundet (1846), Nordljuset (1847), Nordisk Litteratur-Tidendes svenske afdeling og mange flere, udgav, optaget af at vække interessen for den skandinaviske tanke både hos danske og svenske læsere. I 1848 begyndte han i Helsingborg udgivelsen af Öresundsposten, det eneste blad, som fik varig levetid; det virkede under krigen for, at Norge og Sverige skulle træde til hjælp, og det indtog en anset stilling på grund af Sturzen-Beckers forbindelser med de Nationalliberale i Danmark. Da han (1862) stillede sig i bestemt opposition mod helstatspolitikken, vendte hans tidligere københavnske forbindelser ham tyggen, og hans politiske og skandinaviske virksomhed afsluttedes således brat; hans sidste arbejde i den retning var Over Sundet (1863—1864).

I sine senere år vakte han opmærksomhed som digter ikke mindst hos den yngre slægt; han udgav nemlig sine Samlade arbeten (5 bind, 1861—1862) og senere Samlade Ax (1868) med digte, som forråder dyb og original udvikling remington shaver india, således i Grefvinnan Grufriakin. Djurgårdslandskap med figurer; her er samme ånd og stil som i hans feuilletoner, men behandlingsmåden har her gjort den livfulde skildring til poesi. Desuden kan nævnes hans lyriske digte og hans fra Byron påvirkede John Faa og Claus Störtebecker, om to eventyrere, skildrede friskt og energisk. Jo ældre han blev meat tendrizer, desto mere positiv og ideelt patetisk blev hans digtning; han minder i den henseende om Strandberg, med hvem han igen trådte i forbindelse. Man har med rette betegnet hans udvikling således, at han fra radikal kosmopolit blev først skandinav og derefter patriot. Sturzen-Becker betegner — også i formel henseende — en af grundpillerne i Sveriges litteraturudvikling. Sturzen-Beckers Valda Skrifter udgavs af hans søn i 3 bind, 1880—1882 med levnedsskildring af Gustaf Ljunggren.


Sitti Navarro (born November 29, 1984 in Las Piñas), also known as Sitti, is a Filipino bossa nova singer. After releasing her first album, Café Bossa, in 2006, other bossa nova acts in the Philippines followed. Navarro is also featured in the segment “A.S.A.P. Sessionistas” of the variety show ASAP.

Sitti Navarro was born to lawyer Rolando Navarro and Lydia Baiddin, in Manila, Philippines. Sitti is of Samal and Tausūg descent. She identifies herself as being Jama Mapun (Sama Kagayan), one of the Sama-Bajau subgroups in Tawi-Tawi. She graduated from the University of the Philippines Diliman in April 2005 with a degree in Business Economics and was a dean’s lister at said university. In high school, she was editor-in-chief of the school paper and graduated as valedictorian of her class.

In college, she was an active member of the AIESEC Local Committee where she was the Vice President for Outgoing Exchange from 2003 to 2004. She was also a member of the Organization of Business Economics Majors (OBEM) in UP Diliman.[citation needed]

Sitti has won two beauty pageant awards: the title of Miss Visayas 2001 in the Miss Travel Girl Pageant, and the first runner-up in the search for “Miss Silka” where she was also named Miss Friendship and Best in Swimwear.

Since tying the knot with fiancé Joey Ramirez last May at a beautiful garden wedding in Baguio City, Bossa Nova Queen Sitti Navarro — who will soon be celebrating her 10th year in the industry — has changed a lot, and we’re not just talking about her civil status.

In a press gathering to launch her latest album Sitti Singles: Bossa Nova Trio (the last album she recorded as a single woman), Sitti talked about her first few months of married life.

She and Joey — a businessman and triathlete — were matched up as blind dates by the cousin of Sitti’s bestfriend who goes biking with her regularly. She thought the two would make a good match, and they did. Since then, according to Sitti, she has noticed that everything in her life has taken on a deeper, richer tone and that includes her music. “Mas may kabuluhan, mas meaningful,” she said, becoming teary-eyed.

“I had no idea that being married could give one such happiness. This is a new chapter in my life looking how they will affect me as a singer and songwriter.”

Since the age of 16, Sitti has been performing gigs at the Hyatt Calesa Bar and others. Although it was her dream to be a TV host, she is now one of the Philippines’ newest singers. In 2004, MTV Philippines started “MTV Supahstar: D’ Super Search”, where Sitti was one of the winners. She also appeared in the group’s music videos, showcasing her talents. It led to her recording contract.

Her debut album, Café Bossa, was released in 2006. Four songs have been released’: “Tattooed On My Mind”, a remake of the D’Sound hit; “Hey Look at the Sun”, “I Didn’t Know I Was Looking for Love”, and “Para Sa Akin”. A live album, Sitti Live!, was released in late 2006, and Café Bossa was re-released with a VCD in 2007.

Sitti collaborated with Club Myx to release Sitti in the Mix – The Dense Modesto Remixes, a collection of songs from Café Bossa that were made into dance-electronica songs with the help of DJ Dense Modesto, in mid-2007, before the release of her second album My Bossa Nova, which focuses on more recent songs. My Bossa Nova was re-released in mid-2008 with a VCD of Sitti Live! 2 called My Bossa Nova Live! and is now a certified Platinum album at the moment.

In the third quarter of 2008, Sitti released her first Christmas album goalkeeper gloves shop, Ngayong Pasko. Unlike her past albums, this album is purely a cover versions album with only one original song, the carrier single and title of the album, Ngayong Pasko. This album also has reached the Gold status in less than a month after its release.

Sitti has also collaborated with Asia’s Pop Idol and Romantic Balladeer, Christian Bautista for his album Captured for a duet of the song of the same title. They once again collaborated for Sitti’s Christmas album on the song “Baby It’s Cold Outside”.

In the second quarter of 2009, Sitti released her third studio album entitled “Contagious” what can you use to tenderize steak, which contains an original which was also the carrier single, “Is This Love”, co-penned by Andrew Fromm, who also penned Christian Bautista’s hit song, “The Way You Look At Me”.

On March 8, 2012, she released her fifth studio album, Sitti – Sessions, which spawned two singles; “Sino’ng Mag-aakala” and “Wag Mo Na Munang Sabihin”. The album allowed her to experiment with other genres apart from bossa nova.

In the first Tokyo-Manila Jazz and Arts Festival, Sitti announced that her record label’s Japanese branch will release one of her albums there, and that the label will decide on its release date. The album aluminium water bottle, released May 2012 on iTunes and October 2012 in stores, is titled “Bossa Covers”.

In 2013, she participated in the Philippines’ highly esteemed Elements National Music Camp, where she was mentored by the likes of Ryan Cayabyab, Joey Ayala and Gary Granada, among others.

On June 25, 2013, it was announced that she will be entering the second Philippine Popular Music Festival as an interpreter with Julianne Tarroja for the song called “Pansamantagal” written by Jungee Marcelo.

Sitti was also co-host of Pinoy Big Brother Season 2 on Studio 23, alongside Asia Agcaoili, ending with the victory of Beatriz Saw. She is currently the official endorser for Lush Group of Companies, specially for the brands Fruitas, Buko Ni Fruitas and The Mango Farm chains all over the Philippines.

She also ventured into acting in Judy Ann Santos’ primetime teleserye, “Isabella”, where she portrayed ‘Tere’, an aspiring lounge singer. Sitti was also featured in ABS-CBN’s “Your Song” where her song “Ikaw Lamang” was the single for the episode she acted in with Sam Milby.

She also had a few hosting stints in Studio 23 such as Pinoy Dream Academy and Travel Time.

Sitti is currently a semi-regular on ABS-CBN’s top-rating Sunday variety show, ASAP ’09. She appears on a segment called ASAP Sessionistas together with MYMP, Aiza Seguerra, Nina, Richard Poon and Duncan Ramos.

Sitti was part of “Katy! The Musical” which was staged last December 27, 2008 at Harbor Garden Tent Sofitel Philippine Plaza Manila wherein she played as Mary Walter. Alongside her was KC Concepcion, Jericho Rosales, Mitch Valdez, Dulce, Eugene Villaluz,Rachel Alejandro, Bituin Escalante, Jonalyn Viray, Aicelle Santos, Maricris Garcia, Frenchie Dy, Gian Magdangal, Gab Valenciano and Jennylyn Mercado.

In 2009, Sitti played the role of “Martha” in the Philippine staging of the Tony-award winning, 19th century stage drama Spring Awakening from Atlantis Productions. Spring Awakening was directed by Chari Arespacochaga and features the set design of Tuxqs Rutaquio, choreography by Dexter Santos, costume design by Rajo Laurel, lights design by Voltaire de Jesus and musical direction by Jojo Malferari.