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Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

The IEA’s Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is a series of international assessments of the mathematics and science knowledge of students around the world. The participating students come from a diverse set of educational systems (countries or regional jurisdictions of countries) in terms of economic development, geographical location, and population size. In each of the participating educational systems, a minimum of 4,500 to 5,000 students is evaluated. Contextual data about the conditions in which participating students learn mathematics and science are collected from the students and their teachers, their principals, and their parents via questionnaires.

TIMSS is one of the studies established by IEA aimed at allowing educational systems worldwide to compare students’ educational achievement and learn from the experiences of others in designing effective education policy. This assessment was first conducted in 1995, and has been administered every four years thereafter. Therefore, some of the participating educational systems have trend data across assessments from 1995 to 2015. TIMSS assesses 4th and 8th grade students, while TIMSS Advanced assesses students in the final year of secondary school in advanced mathematics and physics.

A precursor to TIMSS was the First International Mathematics Study (FIMS) performed in 1964 in 11 countries for students aged 13 and in the final year of secondary education (FS) under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). This was followed in 1970-71 by the First International Science Study (FISS) for students aged 10, 14, and FS. Fourteen countries tested 10-year olds; 16 countries tested the older two groups. These were replicated between 1980 and 1984.

These early studies were revised and combined by the IEA to create TIMSS Black Runner Waist Pack, which was first administered in 1995. It was the largest international student assessment study of its time and evaluated students in five grades. In the second cycle (1999) only eighth-grade students were tested. In the next cycles (2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015) both 4th and 8th grade students were assessed. The 2011 cycle was performed in the same year as the IEA’s Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), offering a comprehensive assessment of mathematics, science and reading for the countries participating in both studies. The sixth cycle was conducted in 2015, and the results were released in 2016; the data set was published in February 2017. TIMSS 2015 included data collected from parents for the first time. TIMSS Advanced, previously conducted in 1995 and 2008, was also conducted in 2015, and assessed final-year secondary students’ achievement in advanced mathematics and physics. Policy-relevant data about curriculum emphasis, technology use, and teacher preparation and training accompanies the TIMSS Advanced results.

Along with the overall students’ achievement data, TIMSS comprehensive assessments include data on student performance in various mathematics and science domains (algebra, geometry, biology, chemistry, etc.) and on performance in the problem solving challenges in each of these contexts. In addition, TIMSS provides contextual data on crucial curricular, instructional, and resource-related factors that can impact the teaching and learning process. These data are gathered using student, teacher, school, and curriculum (national) questionnaires filled out by students, teachers, school principals and National Research Coordinators, respectively.

According to the TIMSS 2011 international results in mathematics, “The TIMSS mathematics achievement scales were established in TIMSS 1995 based on the achievement distribution across all participating countries, treating each country equally. At each grade level, the scale center point of 500 was set to correspond to the mean of the overall achievement distribution steak tenderizer, and 100 points on the scale was set to correspond to the standard deviation. Achievement data from subsequent TIMSS assessment cycles were linked to these scales so that increases or decreases in average achievement may be monitored across assessments. TIMSS uses the scale center point as a point of reference that remains constant from assessment to assessment” running reflective belt.

Because TIMSS is administered in four-year cycles, it enables participating counties to use the results between the fourth and eighth grades to track the changes in achievement and certain background factors from an earlier study. For example, results of the fourth grade in TIMSS 1995 can be compared with the results of the eighth grade in TIMSS 1999, as fourth graders had become eighth graders in the next cycle of study.

The collected information is presented in different formats. For example, for TIMSS 2015 the results are presented as TIMSS International Results in Science and . The provides an overview of how mathematics and science are taught in each participating country. documents the development of the TIMSS assessments and questionnaires weston meat tenderizer, and describes the methods used. The describes the content and format of the data in the . The fully documented TIMSS 2015 international database can be downloaded.

The IEA has developed an application for working with data from TIMSS and other IEA large-scale assessments called the . . This application allows researchers to combine data files and facilitates some types of statistical analysis (such as computing means, percentages, percentiles, correlations, and estimating single level multiple linear regression). The application takes into account the complex sample structure of the databases when calculating the statistics and their standard errors. It also allows researchers to estimate achievement scores and their standard errors.

For an overview of the IEA study results and interpretation of information, the IEA’s .  can come in handy.

In TIMSS 1995, there were 41 educational systems in five grades (third, fourth, seventh, eighth, and the final year of secondary school). In 1999, TIMSS only focused on the eighth grade in 38 educational systems; there was no study done for the fourth grade in that year. In TIMSS 2003, there were 26 educational systems for the fourth grade and 48 for the eighth grade. In TIMSS 2007, 44 educational systems participated in the fourth grade and 57 educational systems in the eighth grade. TIMSS 2011 had 52 participating educational systems for the fourth grade and 45 for the eighth grade.

In TIMSS 2015, nationally representative samples of students in 57 countries and 7 benchmarking entities participated in the fourth grade assessment, the eighth grade assessment, or both.

TIMSS depends on the collaboration of a large number of individuals and organizations around the world including the , , Statistics Canada, and Educational Testing Service (ETS). In the United States, TIMSS is conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education. Data for US students is further tracked for ethnic and racial groups. TIMSS is mainly funded by the participating countries. Also, the US National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education and the World Bank provide major support funding for the assessments.

Hanushek and Woessman developed a methodology to rescale 14 different international comparisons of math and / or science achievement to make them comparable. This includes the FIMS, FISS, and PISA, mentioned above, with TIMSS.

Forêts d’altitude d’Afrique orientale

Végétation autour de la caldeira du Mont Méru, en Tanzanie.


Les forêts d’altitude d’Afrique orientale forment une écorégion du WWF qui occupe 65&nbsp shaver;500 km2 en Afrique de l’Est. Les forêts tropicales humides qui forment cette écorégion se trouvent sur les pentes de certaines des plus hautes montagnes d’Afrique, les monts Imatong au sud du Soudan, le mont Elgon en Ouganda, le mont Kenya à l’est au sud, en Tanzanie, le Kilimandjaro, le mont Méru et le massif du Ngorongoro.

Ces forêts sont constituées d’arbres poussant à moyenne altitude comme les camphriers, les oliviers avec des spécificités locales comme le Vitex keniensis poussant uniquement sur le mont Kenya. Des conifères et des bambous poussent à des altitudes plus élevées Black Runner Waist Pack. Les zones les plus basses sont déboisées pour l’agriculture, une grande part de la surface de la forêt originelle est, au Kenya au moins, occupée pour la culture du thé.

De surcroît, les montagnes sont isolées les unes des autres et de ce fait ces forêts soient très morcelées. Cette écorégion compte plus de 25 forêts différentes les deux plus grandes faisant 23 700 km2 et 14 300 km2. Les endémismes sont nombreux liter glass water bottle. Au total, on compte 19 espèces de mammifères endémiques.

Ben K. Green

Ben K. Green (1912 – 1974) was an author who wrote about horses and the post-World War I American West. His books consist of anecdotes drawn from his own experiences in the Southwestern United States.

He was born in Cumby, Texas and before he was twenty years old had successfully earned a living trading horses and mules and raising cattle and sheep. The common trading practice– “cheat or be cheated”—is reflected in his stories leeds football shirt, told using the language and humor of the area and not excluding himself from either outcome.

It is often said that he studied at Cornell University and in England but Cornell University has no record of this, and he did not ever become a certified or licensed doctor of veterinary medicine according to records from the Texas State Board of Veterinary Medical Examiners. This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged , , , on by .

Vĩnh Long Province

Vĩnh Long ( listen) is a province located in the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam. Its capital is Vĩnh Long. Its population is 1,046,390 and its area is 1,475 square kilometres (570 sq mi).

Modern-day Vĩnh Long was part of Long Hồ dinh (barrack, 營) established by the Nguyễn lords in 1732, comprising the provinces of Bến Tre, Trà Vinh, and parts of Cần Thơ.

The area saw some of the heaviest fighting between the Tây Sơn brothers and the Nguyễn lords in the late 18th century; in 1784 Nguyễn Huệ defeated Siamese forces aiding Nguyễn Ánh at the Mang Thít River.

In 1951, the Southern Resistance Administrative Committee of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam merged Vĩnh Long and Trà Vinh provinces into Vĩnh Trà Province. Vinh Tra existed until 1954 (however goalkeeper gloves ireland, as North Vietnam never administered the area for a significant period of time, this arrangement was not enforced). In 1957, the Republic of Vietnam formed Vĩnh Long Province, consisting of six districts: Châu Thành, Chợ Lách (now part of Bến Tre Province), Tam Bình, Bình Minh, Sa Đéc, and Lấp Vò. In 1961, Cái Nhum District was split from Chợ Lách. Đức Tôn District and Đức Thành District were added in 1962, but joined the newly formed Sa Đéc Province in 1966. As of 1975, the province had 7 districts: Châu Thành, Chợ Lách glass bottles for water, Tam Bình, Bình Minh, Minh Đức, Trà Ôn, and Vũng Liêm.

After the fall of the Republic of Vietnam, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam merged Vĩnh Long with Trà Vinh Province, forming Cửu Long Province in 1976. In 1991, Cửu Long was again split into Vĩnh Long and Trà Vinh. At the time of the split, Vĩnh Long Province consisted of one city (Vĩnh Long) and 5 districts: Long Hồ, Vũng Liêm, Bình Minh, Tam Bình, and Trà Ôn.

In 1992, Mang Thít District was re-split from Long Hồ District. In 2007, Bình Tân District was created thermos bottles for coffee.

Lying between the Hau and Tien rivers in the center of the Mekong Delta, Vĩnh Long is a province well known for fishing.

Vĩnh Long is subdivided into 9 district-level sub-divisions:

They are further subdivided into 5 commune-level towns (or townlets) Black Runner Waist Pack, 94 communes, and 10 wards.

Prawns and the Basa and Tra catfish are among the many types of fish that exist in abundance in the waters of Vĩnh Long. Its rich, fertile soil makes Vĩnh Long an ideal location for the growing of many exotic and delicious fruits, including the strange-looking mangosteen, the spikey rambutan and the pungently fragrant durian. Because of Vĩnh Long’s extensive network of waterways, these fruits and many other items can be purchased for mere pennies from the huge water-based squadron of floating merchants.

Traveling by water is a common practice here for such mundane tasks as grocery shopping as well as getting to restaurants and tourist attractions located on small islets accessible only by boat. Tourist infrastructure is still in its infancy here, but comfortable lodging and great food can be had for very reasonable prices.

Located approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) southwest of Hồ Chí Minh City, Vĩnh Long is easily accessible by bus, van or car using National Route 1A and the Mỹ Thuận Bridge.


Goulash (Hungarian: gulyás [ˈɡujaːʃ]) is a soup or stew of meat and vegetables

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, seasoned with paprika and other spices. Originating from the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, goulash is also a popular meal in Central Europe, Scandinavia and Southern Europe.

Its origin traces back to the 9th century to stews eaten by Hungarian shepherds. Back then, the cooked and flavored meat was dried with the help of the sun and packed into bags produced from sheep’s stomachs, needing only water to make it into a meal. It is one of the national dishes of Hungary and a symbol of the country.

The name originates from the Hungarian “gulyás[ˈɡujaːʃ]. The word “gulya” means “herd of cattle” in Hungarian, and “gulyás” means “herdsman” or “cowboy”.

The word gulyás originally meant only “herdsman”, but over time the dish became gulyáshús (goulash meat) – that is to say, a meat dish which was prepared by herdsmen. Today, gulyás refers both to the herdsmen, and to the soup. From the Middle Ages until well into the 19th century, the Puszta was the home of massive herds of cattle. They were driven, in their tens of thousands, to Europe’s biggest cattle markets in Moravia, Vienna, Nuremberg and Venice. The herdsmen made sure that there were always some cattle that had to be slaughtered along the way, the flesh of which provided them with gulyáshús.

In Hungarian cuisine, traditional “Gulyásleves” (literally “goulash soup“), “bográcsgulyás“, pörkölt, and paprikás were thick stews made by cattle herders and stockmen. Garlic, caraway seed, bell pepper, and wine are optional. These dishes can be made as soups rather than stews. Excepting paprikás, the Hungarian stews do not rely on a flour or roux for thickening. Tomato is a modern addition, totally unknown in the original recipe and in the whole Central European food culture until the first half of the twentieth century.

Goulash can be prepared from beef, veal, pork, or lamb. Typical cuts include the shank, shin, or shoulder; as a result, goulash derives its thickness from tough, well-exercised muscles rich in collagen, which is converted to gelatin during the cooking process. Meat is cut into chunks, seasoned with salt, and then browned with sliced onion in a pot with oil or lard. Paprika is added, along with water or stock, and the goulash is left to simmer. After cooking a while, garlic, whole or ground caraway seed, or soup vegetables like carrot, parsley root, peppers (green or bell pepper) and celery may be added. Other herbs and spices could also be added, especially chili pepper, bay leaf and thyme. Diced potatoes may be added, since they provide starch as they cook, which makes the goulash thicker and smoother. A small amount of white wine or wine vinegar may also be added near the end of cooking to round the taste. Goulash may be served with small egg noodles called csipetke. The name Csipetke comes from pinching small, fingernail-sized bits out of the dough (csipet =pinch) before adding them to the boiling soup.

Hungarian goulash variations

A thicker and richer goulash, similar to a stew, originally made with three kinds of meat, is called Székely gulyás, named after the Hungarian writer, journalist and archivist József Székely (1825–1895).

“Paprikás krumpli” is a traditional paprika-based potato stew with diced potatoes, onion

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, bell peppers, ground paprika and some bacon or sliced spicy sausage, like the smoked Debrecener, in lieu of beef.

In German-speaking countries this inexpensive peasant stew is made with sausage and known as Kartoffelgulasch (“potato goulash”).

Thick stews similar to pörkölt and the original cattlemen stew are popular throughout almost all the former Austrian-Hungarian Empire, from Northeast Italy to the Carpathians. Like pörkölt, these stews are generally served with boiled or mashed potato, polenta, dumplings (e.g. nokedli, or galuska), spätzle or, alternatively, as a stand-alone dish with bread.

Goulash (Albanian: gullash) is considered a national dish throughout Albania, but its popularity is much higher in northern parts of the country.

In Vienna, the former center of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a special kind of goulash had been developed. The Wiener Saftgulasch or the Fiakergulasch on the menu in traditional restaurants is a must-have. It is a rich pörkölt-like stew; more onions but no tomatoes or other vegetables are used, and it usually comes just with dark bread. A variation of the Wiener Saftgulasch is the Fiakergulasch, which is served with fried egg, fried sausage, and dumplings named Semmelknödel.

Goulash (Croatian: gulaš) is also very popular in most parts of Croatia, especially north (Hrvatsko Zagorje) and Lika. It is considered to be part of traditional cuisine. In Gorski Kotar and Lika, deer and boar frequently replace beef (lovački gulaš). There is also a kind of goulash with porcini mushrooms (gulaš od vrganja). Bacon is an important ingredient.

Gulaš is often served with fuži, njoki, polenta or pasta. In Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian is augmented with vegetables. Green and red bell peppers and carrots are most commonly used. Sometimes one or more other kinds of meat are added, e.g., pork loin, bacon, or mutton. In Slovenia, they are known as perkelt, but are often referred to as “goulash” or a similar name.

In the Czech and Slovak Republic, goulash (Czech and Slovak: guláš) is usually made with beef, although pork varieties exist, and served with bread dumplings (in Czech hovězí guláš s knedlíkem, in Slovak hovädzí guláš s knedľou), in Slovakia more typically with bread. In pubs it is often garnished with slices of fresh onion, and is typically accompanied by beer. Beer can be also added to the stew in the process of cooking. Seasonal varieties of goulash include venison or wild boar goulashes.

Another popular variant of guláš is segedínský guláš (Szeged goulash), with sauerkraut. In Czech and Slovak slang, the word guláš means “mishmash”, typically used as mít v tom guláš: to be disoriented or to lack understanding of something.

German Gulasch is either a beef (Rindergulasch), pork (Schweinegulasch), venison (Hirschgulasch), or wild boar (Wildschweingulasch) stew that may include red wine and is usually served with potatoes (in the north), white rice or spirelli noodles (mostly in canteens), and dumplings (in the south). Gulaschsuppe (goulash soup) is the same concept served as a soup, usually with pieces of white bread.

Goulash in Italy is eaten in the region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia and the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, regions that had been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and still are culturally and linguistically Austrian. Here it is eaten as a regular Sunday dish.[citation needed] It can also, although less typically so, be found in the nearby Veneto. An interesting regional recipe comes from the Pustertal (Val Pusteria, Puster Valley) in South Tyrol. It is made of beef and red wine, and seasoned with rosemary, red paprika, bay leaf, marjoram and lemon zest, served with crusty white bread or polenta. The lemon gives its signature flavor. Goulash is also quite popular in the city of Ancona, which is culturally quite near to eastern Europe.

A form of goulash (Polish: gulasz) is also popular in Poland, though said dish is more similar to Hungarian pörkölt than actual goulash. It is usually served with various forms of noodles and dumplings, such as pyzy (pl)

In Serbia, goulash (Serbian: гулаш) is eaten in most parts of the country Black Runner Waist Pack, especially in Vojvodina, where it was probably introduced by the Hungarian minority. It is actually a pörkölt like stew, usually made with beef, veal or pork, but also with game meat like venison, deer and boar. In Serbia, goulash is most often served with boiled potatoes or potato mash.

In Slovene partizanski golaž, partisan goulash, favoured by Slovenian partisans during the Second World War, and still regularly served at mass public events; most meat is replaced with quartered potatoes. It is not as thick as goulash, but thicker than goulash soup.

American goulash, mentioned in cookbooks since at least 1914, exists in a number of variant recipes. Originally a dish of seasoned beef, core ingredients of American goulash now usually include elbow macaroni, cubed steak, ground beef or hamburger, and tomatoes in some form, whether canned whole, as tomato sauce, tomato soup, and/or tomato paste. In some areas it is called slumgullion.

Maggie Tabberer

Maggie Tabberer AM (also known as Maggie T; born 11 December 1936) is a dual Gold Logie-winning Australian fashion, publishing and media/television personality.

She was born Margaret May Trigar on 11 December 1936 in Parkside, South Australia, a suburb of Adelaide.

Maggie’s first modelling job was a one-off assignment at the age of 14, after a photographer spotted her at her sister’s wedding. She attended a modelling school in her early twenties, and at the age of 23 was discovered by photographer Helmut Newton, who mentored her and launched a highly successful modelling career. While living in Melbourne in 1960, she won ‘Model of the Year’, and moved to Sydney to take advantage of the modelling opportunities there, but she chose to end her modelling career at the age of 25 after she began to lose her slim figure.

Tabberer stayed well connected to the fashion industry, however. In 1967 she started a public relations company, Maggie Tabberer & Associates, which took on many fashion-related clients and assignments. In 1981, she launched a plus-size clothing label called Maggie T.

A portrait of her by Australian artist Paul Newton was a finalist in the 1999 Archibald Prize.

Tabberer began working in publishing when she wrote a fashion column, “Maggie Says”, for Sydney’s Daily Mirror newspaper in 1963. She remained with the paper for sixteen years, until billionaire Kerry Packer asked her to become fashion editor of Australian Women’s Weekly magazine in 1981, and she soon became the public face of the magazine, frequently appearing on its cover and television advertising. Tabberer stayed with Women’s Weekly for fifteen years until 1996.

Tabberer began appearing on television in 1964, as the “beauty” on panel talk show Beauty and the Beast (the “beast” being the show’s host: Eric Baume until 1965, and then Stuart Wagstaff). Tabberer’s appearances on Beauty and the Beast made her a household name, and she began hosting her own daily chat show, Maggie, for which she won two consecutive Gold Logies, in 1970 and 1971. She was the first person to win back-to-back awards, although Graham Kennedy had already won three non-consecutive Gold Logies by 1970 friendship bracelets.

Since 2005, she has hosted her own television interview show, Maggie… At Home With on Australian pay TV channel Bio. (formerly The Biography Channel). On her show she “visits the homes of various Australian celebrities and elites to discuss their lives, careers, tragedies, and triumphs Black Runner Waist Pack.”

Maggie took her surname from her first husband, Charles Tabberer, whom she married at the age of 17, and with whom she had two daughters: Brooke and Amanda. The demands of her modelling career, however, saw that marriage end after seven years.

After moving to Sydney with her daughters in 1960, Tabberer was introduced by Helmut Newton to Ettore Prossimo, an Italian restaurateur, whom she married in 1967. In that same year, Tabberer gave birth to their son, Francesco, who died of sudden infant death syndrome when ten days old. The pair separated after 17 years of marriage, although they rekindled their friendship before Prossimo’s death from a heart attack in 1996.

In 1985, Tabberer announced that she was in a relationship with journalist Richard Zachariah. The couple co-presented a lifestyle television series, The Home Show, on the ABC from 1990 until 1995, when they split up.