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Vuélveme a querer (canción)

«Vuélveme a querer» es el segundo sencillo de la cantante y actriz mexicana Thalía, de su álbum Latina.​ El tema, compuesto por Sergio George y Mauricio Rengifo,​​ fue publicado en la tienda de música digital Itunes. Debutó en el segundo lugar del conteo y fue incluida en la preventa del álbum junto con su anterior sencillo desde el 29 de abril de 2016.​ También el mismo día fue lanzado en YouTube un video audio que en tan solo 12 horas logró más de 90 mil reproducciones.​

El video llegó a contar hasta enero de 2017 con más de 11 millones de reproducciones en YouTube.

«Vuélveme a querer» también se publicó en un Remix (Urban Version) con el cantante reguetonero Tito el Bambino.

La fotografía del videoclip cayó en manos de Horacio Ontiveros y la dirección en el argentino Gustavo Garzón, quien fue director de éxitos de la cantante en la década de los 90 como fueron «Mujer latina», «Por amor» y «Amor a la mexicana».​ Las encargadas de los vestuarios, maquillajes y peinados fueron sus amigas Irma Martinez, Claudia Betancur y Jennifer Matos water bottle best. Según relató Irma running band, en una de las escenas, Thalía usó un vestido diseñado por Michael Costello, especialmente para ella. También, se podía ver a Thalía con un peinado al estilo de Brigitte Bardot. Fueron publicados videos de ellas en su cuenta oficial de la red social Snap mientras se encontraban en el set oficial.​ ​ Finalmente el video fue publicado en su canal oficial de Vevo el 10 de mayo de 2016.

La presentación en vivo del sencillo se llevó a cabo el 8 de mayo de 2016 en el programa Nuestra Belleza Latina

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El comentarista y actor Javier Poza comentó «La cantante considera que “Vuélveme a querer” es el primer sencillo de su nuevo disco, en lugar de “Desde esa noche”, tema que hizo a dueto con Maluma. Se trata de una balada romántica de la intérprete de temas como “Habítame siempre”».​

Lobetanz

Lobetanz ist eine Oper in drei Akten des Komponisten Ludwig Thuille; für das Libretto zeichnete Otto Julius Bierbaum verantwortlich. Seine Uraufführung erlebte das Werk 1898 in Karlsruhe.

Eine Gruppe junger Mädchen streut Rosen und singt ein Tanzlied („Es ist ein Reihen geschlungen“). Da erscheint der fahrende Sänger Lobetanz auf der Gartenmauer und hört ihnen zu. Keck springt er in den Garten und schließt sich den jungen Frauen an. Da er aber bald merkt, dass er mit seiner alten Fidel und seiner schäbigen Kleidung auffällt, will er sich wieder verabschieden. Er wird aufgehalten und er erfährt, dass die junge hübsche Tochter des Königs plötzlich erkrankt sei (Lied „Im Schloß, wo unser König wohnt“). Kein Arzt wisse sie zu heilen und daher hat der König einen Singetag angeordnet. Mit Gesang und Heiterkeit hofft der König, eine Chance auf Heilung seiner Tochter zu haben.

Nun sind alle Musiker und Sänger des Königreiches beschäftigt, lustige Weisen zu ersinnen. Die jungen Frauen bitten Lobetanz, zu bleiben und sein Glück zu versuchen. Sie versprechen ihm auch, seine Kleidung mit den königlichen Rosen zu verzieren. Schon nähert sich eine Prozession, angeführt vom König und seiner kranken Tochter free water bottle. Auf Befehl des Königs begrüßt die Prinzessin alle Erschienenen (Lied „An allen Zweigen das reine Weiß“). Eigentlich sollte nun der Wettkampf der Künstler beginnen. Doch jeder will der Erste sein und darüber geraten alle in einen furchtbaren Streit. Plötzlich erklingt aus der Laube, in der sich Lobetanz versteckt hatte, eine zarte Melodie. Die Prinzessin horcht auf und Lobetanz muss erscheinen.

Obwohl die anwesenden Musiker und Sänger protestieren, verlangt die Königstochter von Lobetanz ein Lied („Soll ich singen zu dir?“). Dieses Lied ergreift die Prinzessin so stark, dass sie ohnmächtig zu Boden fällt. Es beginnt ein Aufruhr und man verlangt vom König, Lobetanz als Zauberer hinzurichten. Dieser kann aber fliehen und die Prinzessin kommt wieder zu sich.

Lobetanz besucht tief im Wald den alten Förster und singt ihm zu Ehren das Lied „Lenz

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, deine Wunder sind tief“. Dabei sitzt er in einem Lindenbaum, in dem sich vor Jahren die Prinzessin eine Laube hat errichten lassen. Lobetanz erzählt dem Förster von seinem Abenteuer und dass ein Rabe ihm seine Mütze gestohlen habe. Nach Meinung des Försters hat der Rabe die Mütze zum Henker auf den Richtplatz gebracht. Als der Förster wieder seiner Arbeit nachgeht, träumt Lobetanz in der Linde von seiner Mutter (Lied „Will mein Junge Äpfel haben“) und von der Prinzessin (Lied „Blau wie das Wasser im See“).

Da erscheint die Prinzessin allein und ist ganz in Gedanken. Als sich beide erkennen (Duett „Die Welt versinkt uns weltenweit“) wird sie wieder fröhlich und gesund. Lobetanz singt ihr sein Lieblingslied („Sitz im Sattel, reite!“) und die Königstochter wird immer vergnügter. Das Tête-à-tête wird durch den König gestört, der mit seinem Gefolge auf einem Jagdausflug ist. Er lässt Lobetanz verhaften, um ihm als Zauberer den Prozess zu machen. Vor Schreck ist die Prinzessin wieder in ihren früheren Zustand gefallen.

In den einzelnen Abteilen des Kerkers liegen die angeketteten Gefangenen; darunter auch zwei Bettlerinnen. Diese verspotten Lobetanz mit seiner Fidel, weil er sich in die Königstochter verliebt hatte (Lied „Bist ein junger Geselle“). Als Antwort will er ihnen auch ein Lied singen best hydration pack running, eine lustige Weise vom Tod („Stell die Uhr ab, Freund Hein“). Nach anfänglichem Schweigen stimmen die anderen in den Refrain mit ein und einige begleiten diese traurig-grausige Ballade sogar pantomimisch. Plötzlich erscheint der Henker und unterbricht Lobetanz’ Spiel. Er kettet ihn los und führt ihn zum Richtplatz.

Die Schaulustigen strömen neugierig hinzu und ein junger Mann stimmt das Lied „Noch ehe die Sonne den Nebel hob“ an. Lobetanz wird vom Henker vor den Richter geführt und dieser verkündet den Urteilsspruch: Tod durch den Strick. Wegen Zauberei, verübt an der Prinzessin, müsse er sterben, und mit seinem Blut soll der Zauberbann der Königstochter wieder gelöst werden.

Die Prinzessin wird auf einer Bahre herbeigeschafft und Lobetanz soll seine letzten Worte sprechen. Auf seine (und des Volkes) Bitte darf er ein letztes Mal auf seiner Fidel spielen. Bei den ersten Klängen des Liedes „Weißt du es noch, wie die Vögel uns sangen“ richtet sich die Kranke langsam auf und sieht Lobetanz verliebt an. Der König verspricht, Gnade walten zu lassen, falls seine Tochter wieder gesund wird.

Lobetanz stimmt nun ein Tanzlied an („Blütenblätter jagt der Wind“) und verzaubert damit alle Anwesenden. Die Schaulustigen beginnen fröhlich zu tanzen, und selbst der Henker und der Richter tanzen mit. Als der König mit seiner Tochter in diesen Tanz mit einstimmt, lässt ein Rabe die gestohlene Mütze auf den Galgen fallen. Jubeld klärt man Lobetanz auf, dass dies nach alter Überlieferung eine anstehende Hochzeit bedeutet navy uniforms football. Unter diesem Jubel fällt der Vorhang.

Dongqiao, Tibet

Dongqiao (Chinese: 东巧) is a village in Amdo County of Nagqu Prefecture

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, Tibet Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China. The village of Dongqiao is noted for its hot spring, Jipu. Dongqiao geologically gives its name to the wider Dongqiao-Nagqu Subregion and the Banggong-Dongqiao-Nujiang fault zone.

Dongqiao is located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) west of Amdo Town. It is located several kilometres to the south of Qiangma and Zigetangcuo Lake, to the northeast of Dongqiacuo lake at an altitude of about 4,657 metres (15,279 ft). The Nu River, also known as the Nujiang River flows nearby forming a valley and the Nutiang River also flows nearby. A small valley is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) southeast of Dongqiao. Dongqiao village gives its name to a large region which it is located in which is known geologically for its ophiolite, termed the “Dongqiao ophiolite belt”, which is dated to the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age. The Jurassic age formations form three distinct geological regions to the north of Lhasa, from north to south the Dongqiao-Nagqu Subregion, the Doilungdeqen-Lhunzhub Subregion and the Sangri Subregion. The northern boundary is known as the Banggong-Dongqiao-Nujiang fault zone or Bangongcuo-Dingqing fault zone, which divides it from the Qiangtang Terrane to the north beyond this. Towards the end of the Jurassic period, the ophiolite became covered by chromitite. As Guangcen Li puts it in a 1990 paper, “the ophiolites appear to be covered in turn by a transgressive marine detrital Upper Jurassic to lower most Cretaceous series goalie soccer gloves.”

The Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences has conducted studies in the area, identifying “diamond orebodies of diamondiferous ultrabasic rock type in Dongqiao and Lhobsa of Amdo County, northern Tibet.” The village of Dongqiao is noted for its hot spring, Jipu.

Due to its geological background, Dongqiao is also a known mining spot, containing the Dongfeng Chrome Mine.

Die tödlichen Wünsche

Die tödlichen Wünsche (The Deadly Wishes), Op. 27, is an opera by Giselher Klebe who also wrote the libretto based on La Peau de chagrin by Honoré de Balzac. It consists of fifteen lyrical scenes in three acts. It premiered on 14 June 1959 at the Deutsche Oper am Rhein in Düsseldorf, conducted by Reinhard Peters, and was published by Boosey & Hawkes. The opera was revived in 2006 in Detmold on the occasion of the composer’s 80th birthday.

Giselher Klebe focused on literary opera, writing his own librettos based on classical literature. His first opera, premiered in 1959 was Die Räuber, after the play by Friedrich Schiller. Klebe based Die tödlichen Wünsche on Honoré de Balzac’s La Peau de chagrin. He structured it in fifteen lyrical scenes in three acts meat beater.

The opera premiered on 14 June 1959 at the Deutsche Oper am Rhein in Düsseldorf, conducted by Reinhard Peters. The leading roles were performed by Walter Beißner (tenor) as Raphael von Valentin, Ingrid Paller (soprano) as Pauline, and Kurt Gester (baritone) in five roles intended to be performed by one singer, Der Groupier, Der Alte, Der Besitzer des Kuirositätenladens, Der Notar Cardot and Jonathan bottle belt running, Raphaels Diener. The performance was part of the Woche “Musiktheater des 20. Jahrhunderts” (week of music theatre of the 20th century), and was staged by Günter Roth. Klebe dedicated the opera to my beloved wife Lore. It was published by Boosey & Hawkes.

The opera was revived in 2006 in Detmold, where the composer then lived and taught at the Musikhochschule and was an honorary citizen. On the occasion of his 80th birthday

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, the Landestheater Detmold staged the work, staged by Kristina Wuss and conducted by Erich Wächter. The premiere on 23 February 2006 was accompanied by an exposition of his autographs kept by the Lippische Landesbibliothek 1 liter bpa free water bottle.

Spinlet

Spinlet is a digital media company football t shirts for kids, focusing on Afro-Centric content. Spinlet’s primary service is music streaming and downloads available globally via browser at spinlet.com, and the Spinlet app on iOS and Android

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. Spinlet’s technology allows the consumer to purchase, listen, share and discover new music while offering integration and storage of the user’s music library on their mobile device. As at October 2015, the Spinlet app had been downloaded nearly 2 million times.

Spinlet has been appointed by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) as Nigeria’s first ever manager for ISRCs – the International Standard Recording Code, an essential digital monitoring and revenue tracking tool.

Spinlet was originally a music streaming mobile app developed in 2006 by two Finnish brothers, Sami Leino and Ville Leino. In 2011, the app was acquired by a group of Nigerian investors represented by Verod Capital Management led by Eric Idiahi, who became the first CEO of Spinlet. Idiahi was succeeded by Neil Schwartzman who was in office from January 2013 to February 2014. The company’s current Chief Executive is Nkiru Balonwu who was previously General Counsel and Chief Operating Officer really cool water bottles.

Spinlet launched in beta in Nigeria May 2011. It was formally launched as an official product in 2013.

Spinlet’s software is proprietary software and provides audio content in the audio files formats where the audio is in 44.1 kHz sample rate, 16-bit per sample, stereo recording are:

Spinlet operates under the freemium, model basic services are free, while additional features are offered via paid subscriptions). It makes its revenues by selling streaming subscriptions to premium users and advertising placements to third parties.

Alongside being a curator of audio content, Spinlet has recently begun generating original video content (I Go Blow

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, Lyrically Speaking and The Spin Deck Show), which they currently host on their YouTube channel

William Breitbart

William S. Breitbart, FAPM, is an American psychiatrist who is an international leader in the fields of Psychosomatic Medicine, Psycho-oncology, and Palliative Care. Breitbart, a renowned clinician, researcher, and educator, is the chairman and incumbent of the Jimmie C Holland Chair in Psychiatric Oncology, as well as Chief of the Psychiatry Service, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY), He is a Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at Weill Medical College of Cornell University. He is a past president of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, and the Editor-in-Chief of Palliative and Supportive Care.

In addition to his position as an attending psychiatrist in the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Breitbart is an Attending Psychiatrist in the Palliative Care Service, Department of Medicine at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and an Attending Psychiatrist at New York Presbyterian Hospital.

Breitbart is a founding member of both the American Psycho-Oncology Society (APOS) and the International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS), where he served on the executive board and is a former president, respectively.

William Breitbart was born in 1951 and raised on the Lower East Side of Manhattan with his younger brother, Sheldon. He attended Yeshiva at the Rabbi Jacob Joseph School on Henry Street before attending Stuyvesant High School.

Breitbart graduated from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University (New York, NY), and completed residencies in Internal Medicine and General Psychiatry at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center – Jacobi Hospital. He continued his fellowship training in Psychosomatic Medicine and Psycho-oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, receiving both a Clinical Fellowship Award (1985–1986) and a Career Development Award (1986–1989) from the American Cancer Society. Breitbart is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Psychiatry, and Psychosomatic Medicine.

Breitbart has been the chief of psychiatry at MSKCC since 1996, and was the director of the ACGME Accredited Fellowship Training Program in Psychosomatic Medicine there. He has been vice-chairman of the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at MSKCC since 2009, and was named interim chairman in June 2012. In October 2014 Breitbart was appointed chairman of the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, and holds the Jimmie C Holland Chair in Psychiatric Oncology at MSKCC.

Breitbart’s clinical role as the Consulting Psychiatrist for the Pain and Palliative Care Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center led him to focus his research efforts on the psychiatric aspects of end-of-life care. He has received continuous funding for investigator initiated research since 1989, including eight National Institute of Health funded projects, four National Institute of Mental Health funded projects, four National Cancer Institute funded projects, and seven privately funded research projects.

Much of his early research focused on the neuropsychiatric problems of HIV-infected patients, including pain, fatigue, delirium and other symptoms that impact quality of life. As Breitbart’s clinical experiences brought more attention to the terminally ill patients’ desire for hastened death, he began to study the psychological and psychosocial factors associated with this desire for death among the terminally ill population. Breitbart and his colleagues began to reframe the concept of despair at the end of life, expanding the concerns of palliative and supportive care beyond symptom management. In addition to constructs such as depression and anxiety, they found that factors such as hopelessness, loss of meaning, and decreased spiritual well-being contributed greatly to the dying patients’ sense of suffering. Breitbart also participates in a multi-centered research trial dealing with dignity-conserving care in palliative care settings.

Breitbart’s most recent research efforts involve the development of novel psychotherapeutic interventions, which he has named “Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy”, aimed at sustaining meaning and improving spiritual well-being in the terminally ill. In an interview for the international journal Innovations in End-of-Life Care, Breitbart refers to the works of existential theorists/philosophers, particularly Viktor Frankl. Frankl’s meaning-based model of logotherapy and his book Man’s Search for Meaning had a significant influence on Breitbart and directed the goals of his work towards the concept of helping dying patients to maintain meaning at the end of life through “Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy”.

Breitbart and colleagues have developed both an individual and group model of “Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy”, inspired by Frankl’s work. These novel interventions are aimed at helping patients sustain and enhance a sense of purpose and meaning in life through various psycho-education tasks, and in turn improve their overall quality of life as they encounter their mortality.

Breitbart was a Soros Faculty Scholar of the Open Society Institute, Project on Death in America.

He has served as a member of the board of directors of the American Pain Society and was a panel member for the American Psychiatric Association Guidelines for the Management of Delirium. He is an active member of the International Association for the Study of Pain and a panel member of the NIH Behavioral Medicine Study Section.

Breitbart has served as the president of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine (2007-8), as well as president of the International Psycho-oncology Society(2008–10).

Breitbart has been honored as a Plenary Lecturer at various international conferences, including the 8th World Congress on Pain, the 16th Annual American Pain Society Scientific Meeting, and the 5th World Congress of Psycho-Oncology. He is the recipient of the 2003 Research Award of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, the 2006 Donald Oken Award from the American Psychosomatic Society, the 2009 Arthur Sutherland Award for lifetime achievement from the International Psycho-oncology Society, and the 2011 Eleanor & Thomas Hackett Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine.

In addition, Breitbart has been recognized as one of New York Magazine’s “Best Doctors” every year since 2002, and is the recipient of the 2009 Willet F. Whitmore Award for Clinical Excellence from Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

Breitbart has published extensively on psychiatric aspects of cancer, AIDS, and end-of-life care. He has edited/co-edited five textbooks including Psycho-Oncology, Psychiatric Aspects of Symptom Management in the Cancer Patient, Handbook of Psychiatry in Palliative Medicine, and Psychosocial Aspects of Pain: A Handbook for Health Care Providers. Breitbart is Editor-in Chief of Cambridge University Press’ international palliative care journal, Palliative & Supportive Care, which focuses on the psychiatric, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of palliative medicine. Breitbart also helped found the publication arm of the International Psycho-Oncology Society, the IPOS Press. Breitbart had published over 160 peer reviewed publications and 200 chapters and review papers. He serves on the Editorial/Review Boards for various international peer reviewed journals and books, including:

Breitbart was a child of Holocaust survivors, “Moishe” and Rose.

Breitbart currently resides on the Upper East Side of Manhattan with his wife, Rachel, and son, Samuel.

1. Breitbart W glass with water, Chochinov H, guest editors. Journal of Psychosomatic Research Special Issue Psycho-oncology Research: 45:3, 1998.

2. Palliative and Supportive Care, William Breitbart, M.D., Editor-in-Chief, Cambridge University Press, 2003 to Present

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. This is the first international palliative care journal (quarterly) that focuses on psychiatric, psycho-social, existential aspects of palliative medicine.

1. Psychiatric Aspects of Symptom Management in Cancer Patients. Edited by Breitbart W, Holland JC, American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, 1993.

2. Jacox A, Carr DB, Payne R, Berde C, Breitbart W, Cain JM, Chapman CR, Cleeland CS, Ferrell BR, Finley RS, Hester NO, Stratton Hill Jr. C. Leak DW. Lipman AG, Logan CL, McGarvey CL, Miaskowski CA, Mulder CS, Paice JA, Shapiro BS, Silberstein EB, Smith RS, Stover J, Park S, Tsou CV, Veccheriarelli L, Weissman DE. Management of Cancer Pain: Clinical Practice guideline No. 9. AHCPR Pub. No. 94-0592. Rockville water bottle waist holder, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources, Public Health Service, March, 1994.

3. Holland J (ed.), Breitbart W, Jacobsen P, Lederberg M, Loscalzo M, Massie MJ, McCorkle R (co-eds.). Textbook of Psycho-oncology. Oxford University Press, New York antique football jersey, 1998.

4. Handbook of Psychiatry in Palliative Medicine. Chochinov H and Breitbart W (eds.). Oxford University Press. New York, 2000.

5. Psychosocial Aspects of Pain: A Handbook for Health Care Providers. Progress in Pain Research and Management, Volume 27. Dworkin R and Breitbart W (eds.). IASP Press, Seattle, 2003.

6. Handbook of Psychiatry in Palliative Medicine 2nd Edition. Chochinov H and Breitbart W (eds.). Oxford University Press. New York, 2009.

7. Psycho-oncology 2nd Edition. Holland J, Breitbart W, Jacobsen P, Lederberg M, Loscalzo M, McCorkle R (eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, 2010.

Colloquial Welsh morphology

The morphology of the Welsh language has many characteristics likely to be unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton. Welsh is a moderately inflected language. Verbs inflect for person, tense, and mood with affirmative, interrogative, and negative conjugations of some verbs. There is no case inflection in Modern Welsh.

Modern Welsh can be written in two varieties — Colloquial Welsh or Literary Welsh. The grammar described on this page is for Colloquial Welsh, which is used for speech and informal writing. Literary Welsh is closer to the form of Welsh used in the 1588 translation of the Bible and can be seen in formal writing.

Initial consonant mutation is a phenomenon common to all Insular Celtic languages, although there is no evidence of it in the ancient Continental Celtic languages of the early first millennium. The first consonant of a word in Welsh may change when preceded by certain words (e.g. i, yn, and a), or because of some other grammatical context (such as when the grammatical object directly follows the grammatical subject). Welsh has three mutations: the soft mutation, the nasal mutation, and the aspirate mutation. These are also represented in writing:

*Soft mutation causes initial /ɡ/ to be deleted. For example, gardd “garden” becomes yr ardd “the garden”.

A blank cell indicates no change.

For example, the word for “stone” is carreg, but “the stone” is y garreg (soft mutation), “my stone” is fy ngharreg (nasal mutation) and “her stone” is ei charreg (aspirate mutation). These examples represent usage in the standard language; there is some regional and idiolectal variation in colloquial usage. In particular, the soft mutation is often used where nasal or aspirate mutation might be expected on the basis of these examples.

Mutation is not triggered by the form of the preceding word; the meaning and grammatical function of the word are also relevant. For example, while yn meaning “in” triggers nasal mutation, homonyms of yn do not. For example:

The soft mutation (Welsh: treiglad meddal) is by far the most common mutation in Welsh. When words undergo soft mutation, the general pattern is that unvoiced plosives become voiced plosives, and voiced plosives become fricatives or disappear; some fricatives also change, and the full list is shown in the above table.

In some cases a limited soft mutation takes place. This differs from the full soft mutation in that words beginning with rh and ll do not mutate.

Common situations where the limited soft mutation occurs are as follows – note that this list is by no means exhaustive.

Common situations where the full soft mutation occurs are as follows – note that this list is by no means exhaustive:

The occurrence of the soft mutation often obscures the origin of placenames to non-Welsh-speaking visitors. For example, Llanfair is the church of Mair (Mary), and Pontardawe is the bridge on the Tawe.

The nasal mutation (Welsh: treiglad trwynol) normally occurs:

1. The preposition yn becomes ym if the following noun (mutated or not) begins with m, and becomes yng if the following noun begins with ng. E.g. Bangor (“Bangor”), ym Mangor (“in Bangor”) Caerdydd (“Cardiff”), yng Nghaerdydd (“in Cardiff”).

2. In words beginning with an-, the n is dropped before the mutated consonant (except if the resultant mutation allows for a double n), e.g. an + personolamhersonol (although it would be retained before a non-mutating consonant, e.g. an + sicransicr).

3. In some dialects the soft mutation is often substituted after yn giving forms like yn Gaerdydd for “in Cardiff”, or it is even lost altogether, especially with place names, giving yn Caerdydd. This would be considered incorrect in formal registers.

Under nasal mutation, voiced plosives become nasals, and unvoiced plosives become aspirated nasals. A non-standard mutation also occurs in some parts of north Wales whereby m becomes mh and n becomes nh, e.g. fy mham (“my mother”; standard: fy mam). This may also occur (unlike the ordinary nasal mutation) after ei (“her”): e.g. ei nhain hi (“her grandmother”, standard ei nain hi).

Under aspirate mutation (Welsh: treiglad llaes), unvoiced plosives become aspirated fricatives.[clarification needed] In spelling this is always represented by the addition of an h after the original initial consonant (c, p, tch, ph, th), but the resultant forms are pronounced as single phonemes.

The aspirate mutation occurs:

The aspirate mutation is the least used of all the mutations in colloquial Welsh. The only word that it always follows in everyday language is ei (“her”) and it is also found in set phrases, e.g. mwy na thebyg (“more than likely”). Its occurrence is unusual in the colloquial Southern phrase dyna pham (“that’s why”) as dyna causes a soft, not aspirate, mutation

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A mixed mutation occurs when negating conjugated verbs. Initial consonants undergo aspirate mutation if subject to it, and soft mutation if not. For example, clywais i (“I heard”) and dwedais i (“I said”) are negated as chlywais i ddim (“I heard nothing”) and ddwedais i ddim (“I said nothing”). In practice, soft mutation is often used even when aspirate mutation would be possible (e.g. glywais i ddim); this reflects the fact that aspirate mutation is in general infrequent in the colloquial language (see above).

Under some circumstances /h/ is added to the beginning of words that begin with vowels. This occurs after the possessive pronouns ei (“her”), ein (“our”) and eu (“their”), e.g. oedran (“age”), ei hoedran hi (“her age”). It also occurs with ugain (“twenty”) after ar (“on”) in the traditional counting system, e.g. un ar hugain (“twenty-one”, literally “one on twenty”).

Although aspirate mutation also involves the addition of an h in spelling, the environments for aspirate mutation and initial /h/ addition do not overlap except for ei (“her”).

Welsh has no indefinite article. The definite article, which precedes the words it modifies and whose usage differs little from that of English, has the forms y, yr, and ’r. The rules governing their usage are:

The article triggers the soft mutation when it is used with feminine singular nouns, e.g. tywysoges “(a) princess” but y dywysoges (“the princess”).

As in most other Indo-European languages, all nouns belong to a certain grammatical gender; the genders in Welsh are masculine and feminine. A noun’s gender usually conforms to its referent’s natural gender when it has one (e.g. mam “mother” is feminine), but otherwise there are no major patterns (except that, as in many languages, certain noun terminations show a consistent gender, as sometimes do nouns referring to certain classes of thing, e.g. all months of the year in Welsh are masculine) and gender must simply be learnt.

Welsh has two systems of grammatical number. Singular/plural nouns correspond to the singular/plural number system of English, although unlike English, Welsh noun plurals are unpredictable and formed in several ways. Most nouns form the plural with an ending (usually -au), e.g. tad and tadau. Others form the plural through vowel change, e.g. bachgen and bechgyn. Still others form their plurals through some combination of the two, e.g. chwaer and chwiorydd.

A few nouns also display a dual number, e.g. llaw, “hand”, dwylo, “(two) hands”.

The other system of number is the collective/unit system. The nouns in this system form the singular by adding the suffix -yn (for masculine nouns) or -en (for feminine nouns) to the plural. Most nouns which belong in this system are frequently found in groups, for example, plant “children” and plentyn “a child”, or coed “forest” and coeden “a tree”. In dictionaries, the plural is often given first.

Adjectives normally follow the noun they qualify, while a few, such as hen, pob, annwyl, and holl (“old”, “every”, “dear”, “whole”) precede it. For the most part, adjectives are uninflected, though there are a few with distinct masculine/feminine or singular/plural forms. After feminine singular nouns, adjectives receive the soft mutation.

Adjective comparison in Welsh is fairly similar to the English system. Adjectives with one or two syllables receive the endings -ach “-er” and -a(f) “-est”, which change final b, d, g into p, t, c by provection, e. g. teg “fair”, tecach “fairer”, teca(f) “fairest”. Adjectives with two or more syllables use the words mwy “more” and mwya “most”, e. g. teimladwy “sensitive”, mwy teimladwy “more sensitive”, mwya teimladwy “most sensitive”. Adjectives with two syllables can go either way. There is an additional degree of comparison, the equative, meaning “as … as …”.

These are the possessive adjectives:

The possessive adjectives precede the noun they qualify, which is often followed by the corresponding form of the personal pronoun, e.g. fy mara i “my bread”, dy fara di “your bread”

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, ei fara fe “his bread”, etc.

The demonstrative adjectives are ‘ma “this”‘ and ‘na “that” (this usage derives from their original function as adverbs meaning “here” and “there” respectively). They follow the noun they qualify, which also takes the article. For example, y llyfr “the book”, y llyfr ‘ma “this book”, y llyfr ‘na “that book”.

The Welsh personal pronouns are:

The Welsh masculine-feminine gender distinction is reflected in the pronouns. There is, consequently, no word corresponding to English “it”, and the choice of e/o (south and north Welsh respectively) or hi depends on the grammatical gender of the antecedent.

The English dummy or expletive “it” construction in phrases like “it’s raining” or “it was cold last night” also exists in Welsh and other Indo-European languages like French, German, and Dutch, but not in Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, or the Slavic languages. Unlike other masculine-feminine languages, which often default to the masculine pronoun in the construction, Welsh uses the feminine singular hi, thus producing sentences like:

Third-person masculine singular forms o and fo are heard in North Wales, while e and fe are heard in South Wales.

The pronoun forms i, e, and o are used as subjects after a verb. In the inflected future of the verbs mynd, gwneud, dod, and cael, first-person singular constructions like do fi may be heard. I, e, and o are also used as objects with compound prepositions, for example o flaen o ‘in front of him’. Fi, fe, and fo are used after conjunctions and non-inflected prepositions, and also as the object of an inflected verb:

Fe and fo exclusively are used as subjects with the inflected conditional:

Both i, e, and o and fi, fe, and fo are heard with inflected prepositions, as objects of verbal nouns, and also as following pronouns with their respective possessive adjectives:

The use of first-person singular mi is limited in the spoken language, appearing in i mi “to/for me” or as the subject with the verb ddaru, used in a preterite construction.

Ti is found most often as the second-person singular pronoun, however di is used as the subject of inflected future forms, as a reinforcement in the imperative, and as following pronoun to the possessive adjective dy … “your …”

Chi, in addition to serving as the second-person plural pronoun, is also used as a singular in formal situations, as is in French and Russian. Conversely, ti can be said to be limited to the informal singular, such as when speaking with a family member, a friend, or a child. This usage corresponds closely to the practice in other European languages. A third form, used almost exclusively in the language’s northern varieties, is chdi, which has a value close to ti; as an independent pronoun it occurs especially frequently after a vowel sound at the end of the phrase (e.g. efo chdi, i chdi, wela i chdi, dyna chdi).

The reflexive pronouns are formed with the possessive adjective followed by hun “self”. There is variation between North and South forms. The first person singular possessive pronoun fy is usually pronounced as if spelt y(n).

Note that there is no gender distinction in the third person singular.

Welsh has special emphatic forms of the personal pronouns.

The term ’emphatic pronoun’ is in fact misleading since they do not necessarily indicate emphasis. They are perhaps more correctly termed ‘connective or distinctive pronouns’ since they are used to indicate a connection between or distinction from another nominal element. Full contextual information is necessary to interpret their function in any given sentence.

Less formal variants are given in brackets. Mutation may also, naturally, affect the forms of these pronouns (e.g. minnau may be mutated to finnau)

The emphatic pronouns can be used with possessive adjectives in the same way as the simple pronouns are used (with the added function of distinction or connection).

In addition to having masculine and feminine forms of this and that, Welsh also has separate set of this and that for intangible, figurative, or general ideas.

In certain expressions, hyn may represent “now” and hynny may represent “then”.

In Colloquial Welsh, the majority of tenses make use of an auxiliary verb, usually bod “to be” or gwneud. The conjugation of bod is dealt with in Irregular Verbs below.

There are four periphrastic tenses in Colloquial Welsh which make use of bod: present, imperfect, future, and conditional. The preterite, future, and conditional tenses have a number of periphrastic constructions, but Welsh also maintains inflected forms of these tenses, demonstrated here with talu ‘pay’.

In the preterite, questions are formed with the soft mutation on the verb, though increasingly the soft mutation is being used in all situations. Negative forms are expressed with ddim after the pronoun and the mixed mutation Heart Dangle Bracelet, though here the soft mutation is taking over (dales i ddim for thales i ddim).

Bod ‘to be’ is highly irregular. In addition to having inflected forms of the preterite, future, and conditional, it also maintains inflected present and imperfect forms which are used frequently as auxiliaries with other verbs. Bod also distinguishes between affirmative, interrogative, and negative statements for each tense.

The present tense in particular shows a split between the North and the South. Though the situation is undoubtedly more complicated, King (2003) notes the following variations in the present tense as spoken (not as written according to the standard orthography):

Bod also has a conditional, for which there are two stems:

A few verbs which have bod in the verbnoun display certain irregular characteristics of bod itself. Gwybod is the most irregular of these. It has preterite and conditional forms, which are often used with present and imperfect meaning, respectively. The present is conjugated irregularly:

The common phrase dwn i ddim “I don’t know” uses a special negative form of the first person present.

The four verbs mynd “to go”, gwneud “to do”, cael “to get”, and dod “to come” are all irregular in similar ways.

The forms caeth, caethon, caethoch often appear as cafodd, cawson, cawsoch in writing, and in places in Wales these are also heard in speech.

In the conditional, there is considerable variation between the North and South forms of these four irregular verbs. That is partly because the North form corresponds to the Middle Welsh (and Literary Welsh) imperfect indicative, while the South form corresponds to the Middle Welsh (and Literary Welsh) imperfect subjunctive.

In Welsh, prepositions frequently change their form when followed by a pronoun. These are known as inflected prepositions. Most of them, such as dan, follow the same basic pattern:

There is some dialectal variation, particularly in the first and second person singular forms. In some places one may hear dano i, danot ti, or danach chi.

The majority of prepositions trigger the soft mutation.

Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is also variously known as Old Brittonic, British, and Common or Old Brythonic. By the 6th century, the language of the Celtic people known as the Britons had split into the various Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish, and Breton. It is classified as a P-Celtic and Insular Celtic language.

Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic, which is descended from Proto-Celtic, a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was already diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, and might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch.

Evidence from Welsh shows a great influence from Latin on Common Brittonic during the Roman period, and especially so in terms related to the Church and Christianity, which are nearly all Latin derivatives. Common Brittonic was later replaced in most of Scotland by Gaelic and south of the Firth of Forth also by Old English (which later developed into Scots). Common Brittonic survived into the Middle Ages in Southern Scotland and Cumbria—see Cumbric. Common Brittonic was gradually replaced by English throughout England; in the north, Cumbric disappeared as late as the 13th century and, in the south, Cornish survived until the 19th century, although modern attempts to revitalize it have met with some success. O’Rahilly’s historical model suggests the possibility that there was a Brittonic language in Ireland before the arrival of Goidelic languages there, but this view has not found wide acceptance.

No documents written in Common Brittonic have been found, but a few inscriptions have been identified. The Bath curse tablets, found in the Roman reservoir at Bath, Somerset, contain about 150 names, about half of which are undoubtedly Celtic (but not necessarily Brittonic). There is an inscription on a metal pendant discovered in 1979 in Bath, which seems to contain an ancient Brittonic curse:

Adixoui Deuina Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamenai or maybe Adixoui Deiana Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamiinai

“The affixed – Deuina, Deieda, Andagin, (and) Uindiorix – I have bound”

An alternative translation is:

“May I, Windiorix for/at Cuamena defeat (alt. summon to justice) the worthless woman, oh divine Deieda.”

This latter reading takes into account case marking (-rix “king” nominative, andagin “[worthless] woman” accusative, dewina deieda “divine Deieda” nominative/vocative), and therefore is probably the most likely correct translation.

There is also a tin/lead sheet with part of 9 lines of text. This is damaged, but seems to contain Brittonic names (see Tomlin 1987).

British toponyms are another type of evidence, recorded in Latinised forms by Ptolemy’s Geography. The place names of Roman Britain were discussed by Rivet and Smith in their book of that name published in 1979. They show that the majority of names used were derived from Common Brittonic. Some English place names still contain elements derived from Common Brittonic. Some Brittonic personal names are also recorded.

Tacitus’ Agricola noted that the language of Britain differed little from that of Gaul. Comparison with what is known of the Gaulish language suggests a close relationship with Brittonic.

Pritenic (also Pretanic) is a modern term that has been coined to label the language of the inhabitants of prehistoric Scotland during Roman rule in southern Great Britain (1st to 5th centuries). Within the disputed P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic division of the Celtic languages

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, “Pritenic” would thus be either a sister or daughter language of Common Brittonic, both deriving from a common P-Celtic language spoken around the 1st century BCE.

The evidence for the language consists of place-names, tribal names and personal names recorded by Greek and Latin writers in accounts of northern Britain. These names have been discussed by Kenneth Jackson, in The Problem of the Picts, who considered some of them to be Pritenic but had reservations about most of them. Katherine Forsyth (1997) reviewed these names and considers more of them to be Celtic, still recognizing that some names of islands and rivers may be pre-Indo-European. The rarity of survival of Pritenic names is probably due to later Gaelic and Norse settlement in the area.

The dialect position of Pritenic has been discussed by Jackson and by Koch (1955). Their conclusions are that Pritenic and Common Brittonic had split by the 1st century AD. The Roman frontier between “Britannia” and “Pictland” is likely to have increased the split. By the 8th century, Bede[where

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?] considered Pictish and Welsh/British to be separate languages.

Common Brittonic was used with Latin following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 CE, at least in major settlements. A number of Latin words were borrowed by Brittonic speakers.

The Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain during the 6th century marked the beginning of a decline in the language, as it was gradually replaced by Old English. Some Brittonic speakers migrated to Armorica and Galicia. By 700, Brittonic was mainly restricted to North West England and Southern Scotland, Wales, Cornwall and Devon, and Brittany. In these regions, it evolved into Cumbric, Welsh, Cornish and Breton, respectively.

The early Common Brittonic vowel inventory was still very similar to that of Proto-Celtic, with the short vowels seeing little change. The long vowels meanwhile had seen some development: earlier /uː/ having merged with /iː/, /aː/ becoming /ɔː/, and two new long vowels developed from earlier diphthongs: /ʉː/ (from /au/, /ou/, /oi/) and /ɛː/ (from /ai/). Similarly, the earlier diphthong /ei/ merged with Brittonic /eː/.

Notes:

Through comparative linguistics, it is possible to reconstruct the declension paradigms of Common Brittonic:

Notes:

Common Brittonic survives today in a few English place names and river names. However, some of these may be pre-Celtic. The best example is perhaps that of the River(s) Avon, which comes from the Brittonic abona which translates into “river” (compare Welsh afon, Cornish avon, Irish (and Scottish Gaelic) abhainn, Manx awin, Breton aven; the Latin cognate is amnis).

Brittonic-derived place-names are scattered across Great Britain, with many occurring in the West Country; some examples are:

Some Brittonic place names are known but are no longer used. In a charter of 682 the name of Creech St. Michael, Somerset is given as “Cructan”.

The words “Tor”, “Combe”, “Bere”, and “Hele” of Brittonic origin are particularly common in Devon as elements of placenames, often combined with elements of English origin. Compound names sometimes occur across England, such as “Derwent Water” or “Chetwood”

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, (cf. Cornish kos “wood”, Welsh coed, Breton koad) which contain the same element translated in both languages.

Phlegon von Tralleis

Phlegon von Tralleis († nach 137) war ein antiker griechischer Buntschriftsteller aus Tralleis (Tralles) in Kleinasien. Er war ein Freigelassener (Phlegon Aelius) und Hofbeamter des römischen Kaisers Hadrian.

Das byzantinische Lexikon Suda führt die Titel einiger von Phlegon stammender Bücher an. Danach schrieb er u. a. ein zweibändiges Werk über Olympioniken, eine dreibändige Beschreibung der Insel Sizilien, eine ebenfalls dreibändige Beschreibung römischer Feste sowie eine zweibändige Darstellung der Topographie Roms. Alle diese Schriften sind restlos verloren. Erhalten, wenn auch nicht ganz vollständig, sind hingegen zwei andere Werke Phlegons: Eine u. a. nach den Zensuslisten des Kaisers Vespasian erstellte Auswahl von Menschen, die sehr alt wurden (Peri makrobion), sowie das Buch der Wunder. In Letzterem wurden etwa aus älteren Paradoxographen geschöpfte Berichte über Missgeburten, Geschlechtswandel, Zwitter und Auferstehung wiedergegeben. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe bearbeitete eine Erzählung des Buches der Wunder in seiner 1797 entstandenen Ballade Die Braut von Korinth.

Stoff aus seinen bisher genannten Schriften verwertete Phlegon in seinem 16 Bücher umfassenden Werk Olympiades, einer Weltchronik von Eigenartigkeiten (Mirabilia) die von der 1. bis zur 229. Olympiade (776 v. bis 137 n. Chr.) reichte

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. Als zeitlichen Endpunkt dieser Chronik hatte Phlegon den Tod Hadrians gewählt. Von dieser umfangreichen Schrift, aus der auch eine achtbändige Epitome hergestellt wurde, liegen heute nur noch Fragmente vor. Behandelt waren darin u. a. die Olympioniken, Prodigien sowie Orakel.

Die in der spätantiken Historia Augusta aufgestellte Behauptung, Phlegon habe auch eine Vita seines Gönners Hadrian verfasst, dürfte hingegen falsch sein

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Im Markus-, Matthäus- und Lukas-Evangelium wird berichtet, dass bei der Kreuzigung Jesu von Nazaret eine große Finsternis eintrat. Bereits im frühen Christentum entstand eine lebhafte Diskussion darüber (z.&nbsp

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;B. bei Sextus Iulius Africanus und Origenes), wie diese Finsternis zu deuten sei. Insbesondere die Passage im Lukas-Evangelium ermöglicht als Deutung eine Sonnenfinsternis

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, wenngleich das Passah-Fest und somit die Nähe zum Vollmond diese Möglichkeit ausschließt: „Und es war schon um die sechste Stunde, da kam eine Finsternis über das ganze Land bis zur neunten Stunde, weil die Sonne ihren Schein verlor“ (Lk 23,44-45 ).

In den Diskussionen der frühen Christen wird auch Bezug genommen auf eine Sonnenfinsternis, die Phlegon in seinen Olympiades für das 4. Jahr der 202. Olympiade, d. h. für die Jahre 32/33, überliefert haben soll. Eusebius von Caesarea zitiert in seiner Chronik Phlegon so:

Verwendet man heutige astronomische Rückrechnungen, stellt man fest, dass zwar am 24. November 29, also im 1. Jahr der 202. Olympiade eine Sonnenfinsternis in Palästina gut zu sehen und in Nicäa sogar total war, nicht aber im 4. Jahr. Alexander Demandt zufolge wäre demnach im Laufe der Zeit das Datum dieser Sonnenfinsternis vom 1. zum 4. Jahr der 202. Olympiade umgeschrieben bzw. „verformt“ worden, um diese Sonnenfinsternis besser auf das Datum der Kreuzigung beziehen zu können.

Vornehmlich evangelikale Christen sehen in der Überlieferung der Phlegon-Sonnenfinsternis einen heidnischen und somit von der biblischen Überlieferung unabhängigen Beleg für die Verfinsterung beim Tode Jesu.

Volary

Volary (Duits: Wallern) is een Tsjechische stad gelegen in het zuiden van het land

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. De plaats ligt dicht bij de grens met Duitsland in het Bohemer Woud. In 2005 had de gemeente Volary 4.083 inwoners.

Volary was tot begin 1946 een plaats met een Duitstalige bevolking. In maart 1946 werd de Duitstalige bevolking verdreven

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Tot Volary behoren de stadsdelen: Chlum (Humwald) und Mlynářovice (Müllerschlag) sowie die Weiler und Einschichten Dolni Sněžná (Unter Schneedorf), Krejčovice (Schneiderschlag)

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, Milešice (Oberschlag), Nové Chalupy (Neuhäuser)

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, Plešivec (Kolmberg), Soumarský Most (Säumerbrücke) en Svatá Magdaléna (St. Magdalena). Horní Sněžná (Ober Schneedorf) behoort ook tot deze stad.

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