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Dongqiao, Tibet

Dongqiao (Chinese: 东巧) is a village in Amdo County of Nagqu Prefecture

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, Tibet Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China. The village of Dongqiao is noted for its hot spring, Jipu. Dongqiao geologically gives its name to the wider Dongqiao-Nagqu Subregion and the Banggong-Dongqiao-Nujiang fault zone.

Dongqiao is located about 90 kilometres (56 mi) west of Amdo Town. It is located several kilometres to the south of Qiangma and Zigetangcuo Lake, to the northeast of Dongqiacuo lake at an altitude of about 4,657 metres (15,279 ft). The Nu River, also known as the Nujiang River flows nearby forming a valley and the Nutiang River also flows nearby. A small valley is located 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) southeast of Dongqiao. Dongqiao village gives its name to a large region which it is located in which is known geologically for its ophiolite, termed the “Dongqiao ophiolite belt”, which is dated to the late Jurassic to early Cretaceous age. The Jurassic age formations form three distinct geological regions to the north of Lhasa, from north to south the Dongqiao-Nagqu Subregion, the Doilungdeqen-Lhunzhub Subregion and the Sangri Subregion. The northern boundary is known as the Banggong-Dongqiao-Nujiang fault zone or Bangongcuo-Dingqing fault zone, which divides it from the Qiangtang Terrane to the north beyond this. Towards the end of the Jurassic period, the ophiolite became covered by chromitite. As Guangcen Li puts it in a 1990 paper, “the ophiolites appear to be covered in turn by a transgressive marine detrital Upper Jurassic to lower most Cretaceous series goalie soccer gloves.”

The Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences has conducted studies in the area, identifying “diamond orebodies of diamondiferous ultrabasic rock type in Dongqiao and Lhobsa of Amdo County, northern Tibet.” The village of Dongqiao is noted for its hot spring, Jipu.

Due to its geological background, Dongqiao is also a known mining spot, containing the Dongfeng Chrome Mine.

Die tödlichen Wünsche

Die tödlichen Wünsche (The Deadly Wishes), Op. 27, is an opera by Giselher Klebe who also wrote the libretto based on La Peau de chagrin by Honoré de Balzac. It consists of fifteen lyrical scenes in three acts. It premiered on 14 June 1959 at the Deutsche Oper am Rhein in Düsseldorf, conducted by Reinhard Peters, and was published by Boosey & Hawkes. The opera was revived in 2006 in Detmold on the occasion of the composer’s 80th birthday.

Giselher Klebe focused on literary opera, writing his own librettos based on classical literature. His first opera, premiered in 1959 was Die Räuber, after the play by Friedrich Schiller. Klebe based Die tödlichen Wünsche on Honoré de Balzac’s La Peau de chagrin. He structured it in fifteen lyrical scenes in three acts meat beater.

The opera premiered on 14 June 1959 at the Deutsche Oper am Rhein in Düsseldorf, conducted by Reinhard Peters. The leading roles were performed by Walter Beißner (tenor) as Raphael von Valentin, Ingrid Paller (soprano) as Pauline, and Kurt Gester (baritone) in five roles intended to be performed by one singer, Der Groupier, Der Alte, Der Besitzer des Kuirositätenladens, Der Notar Cardot and Jonathan bottle belt running, Raphaels Diener. The performance was part of the Woche “Musiktheater des 20. Jahrhunderts” (week of music theatre of the 20th century), and was staged by Günter Roth. Klebe dedicated the opera to my beloved wife Lore. It was published by Boosey & Hawkes.

The opera was revived in 2006 in Detmold, where the composer then lived and taught at the Musikhochschule and was an honorary citizen. On the occasion of his 80th birthday

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, the Landestheater Detmold staged the work, staged by Kristina Wuss and conducted by Erich Wächter. The premiere on 23 February 2006 was accompanied by an exposition of his autographs kept by the Lippische Landesbibliothek 1 liter bpa free water bottle.

Spinlet

Spinlet is a digital media company football t shirts for kids, focusing on Afro-Centric content. Spinlet’s primary service is music streaming and downloads available globally via browser at spinlet.com, and the Spinlet app on iOS and Android

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. Spinlet’s technology allows the consumer to purchase, listen, share and discover new music while offering integration and storage of the user’s music library on their mobile device. As at October 2015, the Spinlet app had been downloaded nearly 2 million times.

Spinlet has been appointed by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) as Nigeria’s first ever manager for ISRCs – the International Standard Recording Code, an essential digital monitoring and revenue tracking tool.

Spinlet was originally a music streaming mobile app developed in 2006 by two Finnish brothers, Sami Leino and Ville Leino. In 2011, the app was acquired by a group of Nigerian investors represented by Verod Capital Management led by Eric Idiahi, who became the first CEO of Spinlet. Idiahi was succeeded by Neil Schwartzman who was in office from January 2013 to February 2014. The company’s current Chief Executive is Nkiru Balonwu who was previously General Counsel and Chief Operating Officer really cool water bottles.

Spinlet launched in beta in Nigeria May 2011. It was formally launched as an official product in 2013.

Spinlet’s software is proprietary software and provides audio content in the audio files formats where the audio is in 44.1 kHz sample rate, 16-bit per sample, stereo recording are:

Spinlet operates under the freemium, model basic services are free, while additional features are offered via paid subscriptions). It makes its revenues by selling streaming subscriptions to premium users and advertising placements to third parties.

Alongside being a curator of audio content, Spinlet has recently begun generating original video content (I Go Blow

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, Lyrically Speaking and The Spin Deck Show), which they currently host on their YouTube channel

William Breitbart

William S. Breitbart, FAPM, is an American psychiatrist who is an international leader in the fields of Psychosomatic Medicine, Psycho-oncology, and Palliative Care. Breitbart, a renowned clinician, researcher, and educator, is the chairman and incumbent of the Jimmie C Holland Chair in Psychiatric Oncology, as well as Chief of the Psychiatry Service, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY), He is a Professor of Clinical Psychiatry at Weill Medical College of Cornell University. He is a past president of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, and the Editor-in-Chief of Palliative and Supportive Care.

In addition to his position as an attending psychiatrist in the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Breitbart is an Attending Psychiatrist in the Palliative Care Service, Department of Medicine at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and an Attending Psychiatrist at New York Presbyterian Hospital.

Breitbart is a founding member of both the American Psycho-Oncology Society (APOS) and the International Psycho-Oncology Society (IPOS), where he served on the executive board and is a former president, respectively.

William Breitbart was born in 1951 and raised on the Lower East Side of Manhattan with his younger brother, Sheldon. He attended Yeshiva at the Rabbi Jacob Joseph School on Henry Street before attending Stuyvesant High School.

Breitbart graduated from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University (New York, NY), and completed residencies in Internal Medicine and General Psychiatry at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center – Jacobi Hospital. He continued his fellowship training in Psychosomatic Medicine and Psycho-oncology at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, receiving both a Clinical Fellowship Award (1985–1986) and a Career Development Award (1986–1989) from the American Cancer Society. Breitbart is Board Certified in Internal Medicine, Psychiatry, and Psychosomatic Medicine.

Breitbart has been the chief of psychiatry at MSKCC since 1996, and was the director of the ACGME Accredited Fellowship Training Program in Psychosomatic Medicine there. He has been vice-chairman of the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at MSKCC since 2009, and was named interim chairman in June 2012. In October 2014 Breitbart was appointed chairman of the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, and holds the Jimmie C Holland Chair in Psychiatric Oncology at MSKCC.

Breitbart’s clinical role as the Consulting Psychiatrist for the Pain and Palliative Care Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center led him to focus his research efforts on the psychiatric aspects of end-of-life care. He has received continuous funding for investigator initiated research since 1989, including eight National Institute of Health funded projects, four National Institute of Mental Health funded projects, four National Cancer Institute funded projects, and seven privately funded research projects.

Much of his early research focused on the neuropsychiatric problems of HIV-infected patients, including pain, fatigue, delirium and other symptoms that impact quality of life. As Breitbart’s clinical experiences brought more attention to the terminally ill patients’ desire for hastened death, he began to study the psychological and psychosocial factors associated with this desire for death among the terminally ill population. Breitbart and his colleagues began to reframe the concept of despair at the end of life, expanding the concerns of palliative and supportive care beyond symptom management. In addition to constructs such as depression and anxiety, they found that factors such as hopelessness, loss of meaning, and decreased spiritual well-being contributed greatly to the dying patients’ sense of suffering. Breitbart also participates in a multi-centered research trial dealing with dignity-conserving care in palliative care settings.

Breitbart’s most recent research efforts involve the development of novel psychotherapeutic interventions, which he has named “Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy”, aimed at sustaining meaning and improving spiritual well-being in the terminally ill. In an interview for the international journal Innovations in End-of-Life Care, Breitbart refers to the works of existential theorists/philosophers, particularly Viktor Frankl. Frankl’s meaning-based model of logotherapy and his book Man’s Search for Meaning had a significant influence on Breitbart and directed the goals of his work towards the concept of helping dying patients to maintain meaning at the end of life through “Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy”.

Breitbart and colleagues have developed both an individual and group model of “Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy”, inspired by Frankl’s work. These novel interventions are aimed at helping patients sustain and enhance a sense of purpose and meaning in life through various psycho-education tasks, and in turn improve their overall quality of life as they encounter their mortality.

Breitbart was a Soros Faculty Scholar of the Open Society Institute, Project on Death in America.

He has served as a member of the board of directors of the American Pain Society and was a panel member for the American Psychiatric Association Guidelines for the Management of Delirium. He is an active member of the International Association for the Study of Pain and a panel member of the NIH Behavioral Medicine Study Section.

Breitbart has served as the president of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine (2007-8), as well as president of the International Psycho-oncology Society(2008–10).

Breitbart has been honored as a Plenary Lecturer at various international conferences, including the 8th World Congress on Pain, the 16th Annual American Pain Society Scientific Meeting, and the 5th World Congress of Psycho-Oncology. He is the recipient of the 2003 Research Award of the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine, the 2006 Donald Oken Award from the American Psychosomatic Society, the 2009 Arthur Sutherland Award for lifetime achievement from the International Psycho-oncology Society, and the 2011 Eleanor & Thomas Hackett Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine.

In addition, Breitbart has been recognized as one of New York Magazine’s “Best Doctors” every year since 2002, and is the recipient of the 2009 Willet F. Whitmore Award for Clinical Excellence from Memorial-Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

Breitbart has published extensively on psychiatric aspects of cancer, AIDS, and end-of-life care. He has edited/co-edited five textbooks including Psycho-Oncology, Psychiatric Aspects of Symptom Management in the Cancer Patient, Handbook of Psychiatry in Palliative Medicine, and Psychosocial Aspects of Pain: A Handbook for Health Care Providers. Breitbart is Editor-in Chief of Cambridge University Press’ international palliative care journal, Palliative & Supportive Care, which focuses on the psychiatric, psychosocial, and spiritual aspects of palliative medicine. Breitbart also helped found the publication arm of the International Psycho-Oncology Society, the IPOS Press. Breitbart had published over 160 peer reviewed publications and 200 chapters and review papers. He serves on the Editorial/Review Boards for various international peer reviewed journals and books, including:

Breitbart was a child of Holocaust survivors, “Moishe” and Rose.

Breitbart currently resides on the Upper East Side of Manhattan with his wife, Rachel, and son, Samuel.

1. Breitbart W glass with water, Chochinov H, guest editors. Journal of Psychosomatic Research Special Issue Psycho-oncology Research: 45:3, 1998.

2. Palliative and Supportive Care, William Breitbart, M.D., Editor-in-Chief, Cambridge University Press, 2003 to Present

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. This is the first international palliative care journal (quarterly) that focuses on psychiatric, psycho-social, existential aspects of palliative medicine.

1. Psychiatric Aspects of Symptom Management in Cancer Patients. Edited by Breitbart W, Holland JC, American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC, 1993.

2. Jacox A, Carr DB, Payne R, Berde C, Breitbart W, Cain JM, Chapman CR, Cleeland CS, Ferrell BR, Finley RS, Hester NO, Stratton Hill Jr. C. Leak DW. Lipman AG, Logan CL, McGarvey CL, Miaskowski CA, Mulder CS, Paice JA, Shapiro BS, Silberstein EB, Smith RS, Stover J, Park S, Tsou CV, Veccheriarelli L, Weissman DE. Management of Cancer Pain: Clinical Practice guideline No. 9. AHCPR Pub. No. 94-0592. Rockville water bottle waist holder, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, U.S. Department of Health and Human Resources, Public Health Service, March, 1994.

3. Holland J (ed.), Breitbart W, Jacobsen P, Lederberg M, Loscalzo M, Massie MJ, McCorkle R (co-eds.). Textbook of Psycho-oncology. Oxford University Press, New York antique football jersey, 1998.

4. Handbook of Psychiatry in Palliative Medicine. Chochinov H and Breitbart W (eds.). Oxford University Press. New York, 2000.

5. Psychosocial Aspects of Pain: A Handbook for Health Care Providers. Progress in Pain Research and Management, Volume 27. Dworkin R and Breitbart W (eds.). IASP Press, Seattle, 2003.

6. Handbook of Psychiatry in Palliative Medicine 2nd Edition. Chochinov H and Breitbart W (eds.). Oxford University Press. New York, 2009.

7. Psycho-oncology 2nd Edition. Holland J, Breitbart W, Jacobsen P, Lederberg M, Loscalzo M, McCorkle R (eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, 2010.

Colloquial Welsh morphology

The morphology of the Welsh language has many characteristics likely to be unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton. Welsh is a moderately inflected language. Verbs inflect for person, tense, and mood with affirmative, interrogative, and negative conjugations of some verbs. There is no case inflection in Modern Welsh.

Modern Welsh can be written in two varieties — Colloquial Welsh or Literary Welsh. The grammar described on this page is for Colloquial Welsh, which is used for speech and informal writing. Literary Welsh is closer to the form of Welsh used in the 1588 translation of the Bible and can be seen in formal writing.

Initial consonant mutation is a phenomenon common to all Insular Celtic languages, although there is no evidence of it in the ancient Continental Celtic languages of the early first millennium. The first consonant of a word in Welsh may change when preceded by certain words (e.g. i, yn, and a), or because of some other grammatical context (such as when the grammatical object directly follows the grammatical subject). Welsh has three mutations: the soft mutation, the nasal mutation, and the aspirate mutation. These are also represented in writing:

*Soft mutation causes initial /ɡ/ to be deleted. For example, gardd “garden” becomes yr ardd “the garden”.

A blank cell indicates no change.

For example, the word for “stone” is carreg, but “the stone” is y garreg (soft mutation), “my stone” is fy ngharreg (nasal mutation) and “her stone” is ei charreg (aspirate mutation). These examples represent usage in the standard language; there is some regional and idiolectal variation in colloquial usage. In particular, the soft mutation is often used where nasal or aspirate mutation might be expected on the basis of these examples.

Mutation is not triggered by the form of the preceding word; the meaning and grammatical function of the word are also relevant. For example, while yn meaning “in” triggers nasal mutation, homonyms of yn do not. For example:

The soft mutation (Welsh: treiglad meddal) is by far the most common mutation in Welsh. When words undergo soft mutation, the general pattern is that unvoiced plosives become voiced plosives, and voiced plosives become fricatives or disappear; some fricatives also change, and the full list is shown in the above table.

In some cases a limited soft mutation takes place. This differs from the full soft mutation in that words beginning with rh and ll do not mutate.

Common situations where the limited soft mutation occurs are as follows – note that this list is by no means exhaustive.

Common situations where the full soft mutation occurs are as follows – note that this list is by no means exhaustive:

The occurrence of the soft mutation often obscures the origin of placenames to non-Welsh-speaking visitors. For example, Llanfair is the church of Mair (Mary), and Pontardawe is the bridge on the Tawe.

The nasal mutation (Welsh: treiglad trwynol) normally occurs:

1. The preposition yn becomes ym if the following noun (mutated or not) begins with m, and becomes yng if the following noun begins with ng. E.g. Bangor (“Bangor”), ym Mangor (“in Bangor”) Caerdydd (“Cardiff”), yng Nghaerdydd (“in Cardiff”).

2. In words beginning with an-, the n is dropped before the mutated consonant (except if the resultant mutation allows for a double n), e.g. an + personolamhersonol (although it would be retained before a non-mutating consonant, e.g. an + sicransicr).

3. In some dialects the soft mutation is often substituted after yn giving forms like yn Gaerdydd for “in Cardiff”, or it is even lost altogether, especially with place names, giving yn Caerdydd. This would be considered incorrect in formal registers.

Under nasal mutation, voiced plosives become nasals, and unvoiced plosives become aspirated nasals. A non-standard mutation also occurs in some parts of north Wales whereby m becomes mh and n becomes nh, e.g. fy mham (“my mother”; standard: fy mam). This may also occur (unlike the ordinary nasal mutation) after ei (“her”): e.g. ei nhain hi (“her grandmother”, standard ei nain hi).

Under aspirate mutation (Welsh: treiglad llaes), unvoiced plosives become aspirated fricatives.[clarification needed] In spelling this is always represented by the addition of an h after the original initial consonant (c, p, tch, ph, th), but the resultant forms are pronounced as single phonemes.

The aspirate mutation occurs:

The aspirate mutation is the least used of all the mutations in colloquial Welsh. The only word that it always follows in everyday language is ei (“her”) and it is also found in set phrases, e.g. mwy na thebyg (“more than likely”). Its occurrence is unusual in the colloquial Southern phrase dyna pham (“that’s why”) as dyna causes a soft, not aspirate, mutation

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A mixed mutation occurs when negating conjugated verbs. Initial consonants undergo aspirate mutation if subject to it, and soft mutation if not. For example, clywais i (“I heard”) and dwedais i (“I said”) are negated as chlywais i ddim (“I heard nothing”) and ddwedais i ddim (“I said nothing”). In practice, soft mutation is often used even when aspirate mutation would be possible (e.g. glywais i ddim); this reflects the fact that aspirate mutation is in general infrequent in the colloquial language (see above).

Under some circumstances /h/ is added to the beginning of words that begin with vowels. This occurs after the possessive pronouns ei (“her”), ein (“our”) and eu (“their”), e.g. oedran (“age”), ei hoedran hi (“her age”). It also occurs with ugain (“twenty”) after ar (“on”) in the traditional counting system, e.g. un ar hugain (“twenty-one”, literally “one on twenty”).

Although aspirate mutation also involves the addition of an h in spelling, the environments for aspirate mutation and initial /h/ addition do not overlap except for ei (“her”).

Welsh has no indefinite article. The definite article, which precedes the words it modifies and whose usage differs little from that of English, has the forms y, yr, and ’r. The rules governing their usage are:

The article triggers the soft mutation when it is used with feminine singular nouns, e.g. tywysoges “(a) princess” but y dywysoges (“the princess”).

As in most other Indo-European languages, all nouns belong to a certain grammatical gender; the genders in Welsh are masculine and feminine. A noun’s gender usually conforms to its referent’s natural gender when it has one (e.g. mam “mother” is feminine), but otherwise there are no major patterns (except that, as in many languages, certain noun terminations show a consistent gender, as sometimes do nouns referring to certain classes of thing, e.g. all months of the year in Welsh are masculine) and gender must simply be learnt.

Welsh has two systems of grammatical number. Singular/plural nouns correspond to the singular/plural number system of English, although unlike English, Welsh noun plurals are unpredictable and formed in several ways. Most nouns form the plural with an ending (usually -au), e.g. tad and tadau. Others form the plural through vowel change, e.g. bachgen and bechgyn. Still others form their plurals through some combination of the two, e.g. chwaer and chwiorydd.

A few nouns also display a dual number, e.g. llaw, “hand”, dwylo, “(two) hands”.

The other system of number is the collective/unit system. The nouns in this system form the singular by adding the suffix -yn (for masculine nouns) or -en (for feminine nouns) to the plural. Most nouns which belong in this system are frequently found in groups, for example, plant “children” and plentyn “a child”, or coed “forest” and coeden “a tree”. In dictionaries, the plural is often given first.

Adjectives normally follow the noun they qualify, while a few, such as hen, pob, annwyl, and holl (“old”, “every”, “dear”, “whole”) precede it. For the most part, adjectives are uninflected, though there are a few with distinct masculine/feminine or singular/plural forms. After feminine singular nouns, adjectives receive the soft mutation.

Adjective comparison in Welsh is fairly similar to the English system. Adjectives with one or two syllables receive the endings -ach “-er” and -a(f) “-est”, which change final b, d, g into p, t, c by provection, e. g. teg “fair”, tecach “fairer”, teca(f) “fairest”. Adjectives with two or more syllables use the words mwy “more” and mwya “most”, e. g. teimladwy “sensitive”, mwy teimladwy “more sensitive”, mwya teimladwy “most sensitive”. Adjectives with two syllables can go either way. There is an additional degree of comparison, the equative, meaning “as … as …”.

These are the possessive adjectives:

The possessive adjectives precede the noun they qualify, which is often followed by the corresponding form of the personal pronoun, e.g. fy mara i “my bread”, dy fara di “your bread”

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, ei fara fe “his bread”, etc.

The demonstrative adjectives are ‘ma “this”‘ and ‘na “that” (this usage derives from their original function as adverbs meaning “here” and “there” respectively). They follow the noun they qualify, which also takes the article. For example, y llyfr “the book”, y llyfr ‘ma “this book”, y llyfr ‘na “that book”.

The Welsh personal pronouns are:

The Welsh masculine-feminine gender distinction is reflected in the pronouns. There is, consequently, no word corresponding to English “it”, and the choice of e/o (south and north Welsh respectively) or hi depends on the grammatical gender of the antecedent.

The English dummy or expletive “it” construction in phrases like “it’s raining” or “it was cold last night” also exists in Welsh and other Indo-European languages like French, German, and Dutch, but not in Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, or the Slavic languages. Unlike other masculine-feminine languages, which often default to the masculine pronoun in the construction, Welsh uses the feminine singular hi, thus producing sentences like:

Third-person masculine singular forms o and fo are heard in North Wales, while e and fe are heard in South Wales.

The pronoun forms i, e, and o are used as subjects after a verb. In the inflected future of the verbs mynd, gwneud, dod, and cael, first-person singular constructions like do fi may be heard. I, e, and o are also used as objects with compound prepositions, for example o flaen o ‘in front of him’. Fi, fe, and fo are used after conjunctions and non-inflected prepositions, and also as the object of an inflected verb:

Fe and fo exclusively are used as subjects with the inflected conditional:

Both i, e, and o and fi, fe, and fo are heard with inflected prepositions, as objects of verbal nouns, and also as following pronouns with their respective possessive adjectives:

The use of first-person singular mi is limited in the spoken language, appearing in i mi “to/for me” or as the subject with the verb ddaru, used in a preterite construction.

Ti is found most often as the second-person singular pronoun, however di is used as the subject of inflected future forms, as a reinforcement in the imperative, and as following pronoun to the possessive adjective dy … “your …”

Chi, in addition to serving as the second-person plural pronoun, is also used as a singular in formal situations, as is in French and Russian. Conversely, ti can be said to be limited to the informal singular, such as when speaking with a family member, a friend, or a child. This usage corresponds closely to the practice in other European languages. A third form, used almost exclusively in the language’s northern varieties, is chdi, which has a value close to ti; as an independent pronoun it occurs especially frequently after a vowel sound at the end of the phrase (e.g. efo chdi, i chdi, wela i chdi, dyna chdi).

The reflexive pronouns are formed with the possessive adjective followed by hun “self”. There is variation between North and South forms. The first person singular possessive pronoun fy is usually pronounced as if spelt y(n).

Note that there is no gender distinction in the third person singular.

Welsh has special emphatic forms of the personal pronouns.

The term ’emphatic pronoun’ is in fact misleading since they do not necessarily indicate emphasis. They are perhaps more correctly termed ‘connective or distinctive pronouns’ since they are used to indicate a connection between or distinction from another nominal element. Full contextual information is necessary to interpret their function in any given sentence.

Less formal variants are given in brackets. Mutation may also, naturally, affect the forms of these pronouns (e.g. minnau may be mutated to finnau)

The emphatic pronouns can be used with possessive adjectives in the same way as the simple pronouns are used (with the added function of distinction or connection).

In addition to having masculine and feminine forms of this and that, Welsh also has separate set of this and that for intangible, figurative, or general ideas.

In certain expressions, hyn may represent “now” and hynny may represent “then”.

In Colloquial Welsh, the majority of tenses make use of an auxiliary verb, usually bod “to be” or gwneud. The conjugation of bod is dealt with in Irregular Verbs below.

There are four periphrastic tenses in Colloquial Welsh which make use of bod: present, imperfect, future, and conditional. The preterite, future, and conditional tenses have a number of periphrastic constructions, but Welsh also maintains inflected forms of these tenses, demonstrated here with talu ‘pay’.

In the preterite, questions are formed with the soft mutation on the verb, though increasingly the soft mutation is being used in all situations. Negative forms are expressed with ddim after the pronoun and the mixed mutation Heart Dangle Bracelet, though here the soft mutation is taking over (dales i ddim for thales i ddim).

Bod ‘to be’ is highly irregular. In addition to having inflected forms of the preterite, future, and conditional, it also maintains inflected present and imperfect forms which are used frequently as auxiliaries with other verbs. Bod also distinguishes between affirmative, interrogative, and negative statements for each tense.

The present tense in particular shows a split between the North and the South. Though the situation is undoubtedly more complicated, King (2003) notes the following variations in the present tense as spoken (not as written according to the standard orthography):

Bod also has a conditional, for which there are two stems:

A few verbs which have bod in the verbnoun display certain irregular characteristics of bod itself. Gwybod is the most irregular of these. It has preterite and conditional forms, which are often used with present and imperfect meaning, respectively. The present is conjugated irregularly:

The common phrase dwn i ddim “I don’t know” uses a special negative form of the first person present.

The four verbs mynd “to go”, gwneud “to do”, cael “to get”, and dod “to come” are all irregular in similar ways.

The forms caeth, caethon, caethoch often appear as cafodd, cawson, cawsoch in writing, and in places in Wales these are also heard in speech.

In the conditional, there is considerable variation between the North and South forms of these four irregular verbs. That is partly because the North form corresponds to the Middle Welsh (and Literary Welsh) imperfect indicative, while the South form corresponds to the Middle Welsh (and Literary Welsh) imperfect subjunctive.

In Welsh, prepositions frequently change their form when followed by a pronoun. These are known as inflected prepositions. Most of them, such as dan, follow the same basic pattern:

There is some dialectal variation, particularly in the first and second person singular forms. In some places one may hear dano i, danot ti, or danach chi.

The majority of prepositions trigger the soft mutation.

Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain. It is also variously known as Old Brittonic, British, and Common or Old Brythonic. By the 6th century, the language of the Celtic people known as the Britons had split into the various Brittonic languages: Welsh, Cumbric, Cornish, and Breton. It is classified as a P-Celtic and Insular Celtic language.

Common Brittonic is a form of Insular Celtic, which is descended from Proto-Celtic, a hypothetical parent language that, by the first half of the first millennium BC, was already diverging into separate dialects or languages. There is some evidence that the Pictish language may have had close ties to Common Brittonic, and might have been either a sister language or a fifth branch.

Evidence from Welsh shows a great influence from Latin on Common Brittonic during the Roman period, and especially so in terms related to the Church and Christianity, which are nearly all Latin derivatives. Common Brittonic was later replaced in most of Scotland by Gaelic and south of the Firth of Forth also by Old English (which later developed into Scots). Common Brittonic survived into the Middle Ages in Southern Scotland and Cumbria—see Cumbric. Common Brittonic was gradually replaced by English throughout England; in the north, Cumbric disappeared as late as the 13th century and, in the south, Cornish survived until the 19th century, although modern attempts to revitalize it have met with some success. O’Rahilly’s historical model suggests the possibility that there was a Brittonic language in Ireland before the arrival of Goidelic languages there, but this view has not found wide acceptance.

No documents written in Common Brittonic have been found, but a few inscriptions have been identified. The Bath curse tablets, found in the Roman reservoir at Bath, Somerset, contain about 150 names, about half of which are undoubtedly Celtic (but not necessarily Brittonic). There is an inscription on a metal pendant discovered in 1979 in Bath, which seems to contain an ancient Brittonic curse:

Adixoui Deuina Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamenai or maybe Adixoui Deiana Deieda Andagin Uindiorix cuamiinai

“The affixed – Deuina, Deieda, Andagin, (and) Uindiorix – I have bound”

An alternative translation is:

“May I, Windiorix for/at Cuamena defeat (alt. summon to justice) the worthless woman, oh divine Deieda.”

This latter reading takes into account case marking (-rix “king” nominative, andagin “[worthless] woman” accusative, dewina deieda “divine Deieda” nominative/vocative), and therefore is probably the most likely correct translation.

There is also a tin/lead sheet with part of 9 lines of text. This is damaged, but seems to contain Brittonic names (see Tomlin 1987).

British toponyms are another type of evidence, recorded in Latinised forms by Ptolemy’s Geography. The place names of Roman Britain were discussed by Rivet and Smith in their book of that name published in 1979. They show that the majority of names used were derived from Common Brittonic. Some English place names still contain elements derived from Common Brittonic. Some Brittonic personal names are also recorded.

Tacitus’ Agricola noted that the language of Britain differed little from that of Gaul. Comparison with what is known of the Gaulish language suggests a close relationship with Brittonic.

Pritenic (also Pretanic) is a modern term that has been coined to label the language of the inhabitants of prehistoric Scotland during Roman rule in southern Great Britain (1st to 5th centuries). Within the disputed P-Celtic vs. Q-Celtic division of the Celtic languages

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, “Pritenic” would thus be either a sister or daughter language of Common Brittonic, both deriving from a common P-Celtic language spoken around the 1st century BCE.

The evidence for the language consists of place-names, tribal names and personal names recorded by Greek and Latin writers in accounts of northern Britain. These names have been discussed by Kenneth Jackson, in The Problem of the Picts, who considered some of them to be Pritenic but had reservations about most of them. Katherine Forsyth (1997) reviewed these names and considers more of them to be Celtic, still recognizing that some names of islands and rivers may be pre-Indo-European. The rarity of survival of Pritenic names is probably due to later Gaelic and Norse settlement in the area.

The dialect position of Pritenic has been discussed by Jackson and by Koch (1955). Their conclusions are that Pritenic and Common Brittonic had split by the 1st century AD. The Roman frontier between “Britannia” and “Pictland” is likely to have increased the split. By the 8th century, Bede[where

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?] considered Pictish and Welsh/British to be separate languages.

Common Brittonic was used with Latin following the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 CE, at least in major settlements. A number of Latin words were borrowed by Brittonic speakers.

The Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain during the 6th century marked the beginning of a decline in the language, as it was gradually replaced by Old English. Some Brittonic speakers migrated to Armorica and Galicia. By 700, Brittonic was mainly restricted to North West England and Southern Scotland, Wales, Cornwall and Devon, and Brittany. In these regions, it evolved into Cumbric, Welsh, Cornish and Breton, respectively.

The early Common Brittonic vowel inventory was still very similar to that of Proto-Celtic, with the short vowels seeing little change. The long vowels meanwhile had seen some development: earlier /uː/ having merged with /iː/, /aː/ becoming /ɔː/, and two new long vowels developed from earlier diphthongs: /ʉː/ (from /au/, /ou/, /oi/) and /ɛː/ (from /ai/). Similarly, the earlier diphthong /ei/ merged with Brittonic /eː/.

Notes:

Through comparative linguistics, it is possible to reconstruct the declension paradigms of Common Brittonic:

Notes:

Common Brittonic survives today in a few English place names and river names. However, some of these may be pre-Celtic. The best example is perhaps that of the River(s) Avon, which comes from the Brittonic abona which translates into “river” (compare Welsh afon, Cornish avon, Irish (and Scottish Gaelic) abhainn, Manx awin, Breton aven; the Latin cognate is amnis).

Brittonic-derived place-names are scattered across Great Britain, with many occurring in the West Country; some examples are:

Some Brittonic place names are known but are no longer used. In a charter of 682 the name of Creech St. Michael, Somerset is given as “Cructan”.

The words “Tor”, “Combe”, “Bere”, and “Hele” of Brittonic origin are particularly common in Devon as elements of placenames, often combined with elements of English origin. Compound names sometimes occur across England, such as “Derwent Water” or “Chetwood”

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, (cf. Cornish kos “wood”, Welsh coed, Breton koad) which contain the same element translated in both languages.

Phlegon von Tralleis

Phlegon von Tralleis († nach 137) war ein antiker griechischer Buntschriftsteller aus Tralleis (Tralles) in Kleinasien. Er war ein Freigelassener (Phlegon Aelius) und Hofbeamter des römischen Kaisers Hadrian.

Das byzantinische Lexikon Suda führt die Titel einiger von Phlegon stammender Bücher an. Danach schrieb er u. a. ein zweibändiges Werk über Olympioniken, eine dreibändige Beschreibung der Insel Sizilien, eine ebenfalls dreibändige Beschreibung römischer Feste sowie eine zweibändige Darstellung der Topographie Roms. Alle diese Schriften sind restlos verloren. Erhalten, wenn auch nicht ganz vollständig, sind hingegen zwei andere Werke Phlegons: Eine u. a. nach den Zensuslisten des Kaisers Vespasian erstellte Auswahl von Menschen, die sehr alt wurden (Peri makrobion), sowie das Buch der Wunder. In Letzterem wurden etwa aus älteren Paradoxographen geschöpfte Berichte über Missgeburten, Geschlechtswandel, Zwitter und Auferstehung wiedergegeben. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe bearbeitete eine Erzählung des Buches der Wunder in seiner 1797 entstandenen Ballade Die Braut von Korinth.

Stoff aus seinen bisher genannten Schriften verwertete Phlegon in seinem 16 Bücher umfassenden Werk Olympiades, einer Weltchronik von Eigenartigkeiten (Mirabilia) die von der 1. bis zur 229. Olympiade (776 v. bis 137 n. Chr.) reichte

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. Als zeitlichen Endpunkt dieser Chronik hatte Phlegon den Tod Hadrians gewählt. Von dieser umfangreichen Schrift, aus der auch eine achtbändige Epitome hergestellt wurde, liegen heute nur noch Fragmente vor. Behandelt waren darin u. a. die Olympioniken, Prodigien sowie Orakel.

Die in der spätantiken Historia Augusta aufgestellte Behauptung, Phlegon habe auch eine Vita seines Gönners Hadrian verfasst, dürfte hingegen falsch sein

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Im Markus-, Matthäus- und Lukas-Evangelium wird berichtet, dass bei der Kreuzigung Jesu von Nazaret eine große Finsternis eintrat. Bereits im frühen Christentum entstand eine lebhafte Diskussion darüber (z.&nbsp

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;B. bei Sextus Iulius Africanus und Origenes), wie diese Finsternis zu deuten sei. Insbesondere die Passage im Lukas-Evangelium ermöglicht als Deutung eine Sonnenfinsternis

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, wenngleich das Passah-Fest und somit die Nähe zum Vollmond diese Möglichkeit ausschließt: „Und es war schon um die sechste Stunde, da kam eine Finsternis über das ganze Land bis zur neunten Stunde, weil die Sonne ihren Schein verlor“ (Lk 23,44-45 ).

In den Diskussionen der frühen Christen wird auch Bezug genommen auf eine Sonnenfinsternis, die Phlegon in seinen Olympiades für das 4. Jahr der 202. Olympiade, d. h. für die Jahre 32/33, überliefert haben soll. Eusebius von Caesarea zitiert in seiner Chronik Phlegon so:

Verwendet man heutige astronomische Rückrechnungen, stellt man fest, dass zwar am 24. November 29, also im 1. Jahr der 202. Olympiade eine Sonnenfinsternis in Palästina gut zu sehen und in Nicäa sogar total war, nicht aber im 4. Jahr. Alexander Demandt zufolge wäre demnach im Laufe der Zeit das Datum dieser Sonnenfinsternis vom 1. zum 4. Jahr der 202. Olympiade umgeschrieben bzw. „verformt“ worden, um diese Sonnenfinsternis besser auf das Datum der Kreuzigung beziehen zu können.

Vornehmlich evangelikale Christen sehen in der Überlieferung der Phlegon-Sonnenfinsternis einen heidnischen und somit von der biblischen Überlieferung unabhängigen Beleg für die Verfinsterung beim Tode Jesu.

Volary

Volary (Duits: Wallern) is een Tsjechische stad gelegen in het zuiden van het land

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. De plaats ligt dicht bij de grens met Duitsland in het Bohemer Woud. In 2005 had de gemeente Volary 4.083 inwoners.

Volary was tot begin 1946 een plaats met een Duitstalige bevolking. In maart 1946 werd de Duitstalige bevolking verdreven

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Tot Volary behoren de stadsdelen: Chlum (Humwald) und Mlynářovice (Müllerschlag) sowie die Weiler und Einschichten Dolni Sněžná (Unter Schneedorf), Krejčovice (Schneiderschlag)

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, Milešice (Oberschlag), Nové Chalupy (Neuhäuser)

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, Plešivec (Kolmberg), Soumarský Most (Säumerbrücke) en Svatá Magdaléna (St. Magdalena). Horní Sněžná (Ober Schneedorf) behoort ook tot deze stad.

Babice · Bohumilice · Bohunice · Borová Lada · Bošice · Budkov · Buk · Bušanovice · Čkyně · Drslavice · Dub · Dvory · Horní Vltavice · Hracholusky · Husinec · Chlumany · Chroboly · Chvalovice · Kratušín · Křišťanov · Ktiš · Kubova Huť · Kvilda · Lažiště · Lčovice · Lenora · Lhenice · Lipovice · Lužice · Mahouš · Malovice · Mičovice · Nebahovy · Němčice · Netolice · Nicov · Nová Pec · Nové Hutě · Olšovice · Pěčnov · Prachatice · Radhostice · Stachy · Stožec · Strážný · Strunkovice nad Blanicí · Svatá Maří · Šumavské Hoštice · Těšovice · Tvrzice · Újezdec · Vacov · Vimperk · Vitějovice · Vlachovo Březí · Volary · Vrbice · Záblatí · Zábrdí · Zálezly · Zbytiny · Zdíkov · Žárovná · Želnava · Žernovice

Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire)

Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire) es el noveno álbum de estudio de la banda británica de rock The Kinks. Se editó en octubre de 1969. El líder del grupo, Ray Davies, creó el álbum conceptual como banda sonora de un proyectado programa de Granada Television, y desarrolló su argumento con el novelista Julian Mitchell; no obstante, el programa de televisión se canceló y nunca llegó a producirse. El borrador del argumento contaba la historia de un personaje llamado Arthur Morgan, instalador de alfombras, inspirado en el cuñado de Davies, Arthur Anning.

Arthur recibió críticas muy positivas tras su lanzamiento. Contó con una amplia cobertura informativa por parte de la prensa musical estadounidense, siendo objeto de artículos en revistas underground como Fusion y The Village Voice. Se le dedicaron dos reseñas consecutivas, escritas por Mike Daly y Greil Marcus, en la sección principal de la revista Rolling Stone: Daly lo valoró como «el mejor álbum de The Kinks», y Marcus llegó a decir que «era el mejor álbum británico de 1969». Las reseñas en el Reino Unido también fueron muy positivas. Aunque recibió una crítica floja por parte de New Musical Express, Disc & Music Echo alabó la integridad musical del disco y Melody Maker lo llamó «lo mejor de Ray Davies… maravillosamente británico hasta la médula».

El álbum, aunque no fue muy exitoso a nivel comercial, significó el regreso de The Kinks a las listas de ventas en Estados Unidos. Su anterior trabajo, The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society, aunque bien recibido por la crítica, no había llegado a entrar en las listas de éxitos de ningún país en 1968, y se calcula que en Estados Unidos se vendieron tan solo unas 25.000 copias. The Kinks volvieron a ingresar en la lista de Billboard en 1969 después de dos años de ausencia, gracias al sencillo «Victoria», que llegó al puesto número 62. El álbum alcanzó el número 50 de la lista Record World y el 105 del Billboard, la posición más alta conseguida por el grupo desde 1965, aunque en el Reino Unido no llegó a entrar en ninguna de las listas. A pesar de sus flojas ventas, Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire) abrió el camino para el gran éxito de The Kinks, en 1970, con el álbum Lola Versus Powerman and the Moneygoround, Part One, junto con su sencillo «Lola», que consiguió entrar en el Top 5 de las listas de Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido.

La productora británica de Granada TV se puso en contacto con Ray Davies a principios de enero de 1969, para expresarle su interés por producir una película u obra de televisión. La idea era que Davies colaborase con el escritor Julian Mitchell en este programa «experimental», con una banda sonora de The Kinks que se editaría también como LP. El acuerdo llegó el 8 de enero, aunque el proyecto no se dio a conocer hasta el 10 de marzo, a través de una nota de prensa.

Por su parte, The Kinks comenzaron a trabajar en el álbum de acompañamiento, titulado Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire). Este trabajo se hizo durante un período duro para la banda, debido en parte al fracaso comercial de su anterior disco The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society y el sencillo, «Plastic Man», así como a la marcha del miembro fundador y bajista del grupo, Pete Quaife. A comienzos de 1969, Quaife había comunicado al resto de miembros del grupo su intención de abandonar la formación; sin embargo, los otros integrantes no se lo tomaron demasiado en serio. Cuando la revista musical New Musical Express hizo referencia a Maple Oak, la banda que había formado Quaife sin el conocimiento de The Kinks, Davies intentó infructuosamente hacer que Quaife volviese a la banda para comenzar las sesiones de grabación de Arthur. Como reemplazo, Davies contrató al bajista John Dalton, quien ya había sustituido con anterioridad a Quaife.

Davies llegó a los Estudios United Recording de Los Ángeles, California, el 11 de abril de 1969, para producir el álbum Turtle Soup, de la banda estadounidense de pop The Turtles, junto al ingeniero de sonido Chuck Britz. Durante su estancia en Los Ángeles, Davies ayudó en la negociación del final de la prohibición de actuar en directo en los escenarios estadounidenses que la asociación American Federation of Musicians había impuesto en 1965 a The Kinks. Aunque ni The Kinks ni la Federación dieron un motivo para la prohibición, en la época se atribuyó al comportamiento escandaloso que tenían en el escenario. Después de las negociaciones con Davies, la Federación cedió y les dio una nueva oportunidad para realizar giras por Estados Unidos. Cuando terminaron las sesiones principales del álbum de Turtles, Davies volvió a Inglaterra. Mientras se encontraba en el continente americano, el resto de los miembros de la banda había estado ensayando para el nuevo álbum, además de preparar el álbum en solitario del guitarrista Dave Davies, llamado A Hole in the Sock of. Cuando Ray regresó, The Kinks se reunieron en su casa de Borehamwood, Hertfordshire, para seguir ensayando para Arthur.

La producción del álbum comenzó el 1 de mayo de 1969. El grupo empezó a trabajar con dos canciones: «Drivin», que iba a ser su siguiente sencillo, y «Mindless Child Of Motherhood», compuesta por Dave Davies, que finalmente se convertiría en la cara B de «Drivin», y no llegaría a incluirse en el LP. El 5 de mayo, The Kinks comenzaron una serie de sesiones de grabación que iba a durar dos semanas, durante las cuales grabaron una primera versión del álbum completo. La grabación se interrumpió cuando The Kinks viajaron a Beirut (Líbano), el 17 de mayo, para dar tres conciertos en el Hotel Melkart. Las sesiones se reanudaron al día siguiente a su regreso y la mayor parte de la producción del disco estuvo terminada a finales de mes. Las mezclas del álbum comenzaron a principios de junio, con el arreglista Lew Warburton encargándose de los overdubs de las secciones de cuerda. The Kinks dieron algunos pequeños conciertos en Inglaterra durante el mes de junio, pero dedicaron la mayor parte de su tiempo a terminar el álbum en solitario de Dave Davies.

La escritura de la obra para la televisión continuó durante los meses de mayo y junio, y el 15 de junio se completó el mezclado del álbum en solitario de Dave Davies (se enviaron las cintas a Pye y Reprise Records, aunque finalmente nunca llegaría a editarse de forma oficial). A través de un comunicado de prensa, se anunció que el lanzamiento de Arthur estaba previsto para julio de ese mismo año. Mientras tanto, Davies y Mitchell completaban el guion y la obra de Arthur comenzaba a tomar forma; se designó al cineasta británico Leslie Woodhead para dirigirla. La producción del programa estaba prevista para principios de septiembre, ya que se pensaba emitirlo a finales de ese mismo mes

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, pero por unos u otros motivos se fue retrasando. A medida que los problemas con el programa empeoraban —y, por consiguiente, distraían al grupo de su trabajo en la posproducción del álbum—, las fechas previstas para el lanzamiento de ambos proyectos se iban posponiendo una y otra vez. A principios de octubre, Ray Davies dejó Borehamwood y volvió a instalarse en su antigua casa familiar, en Fortis Green Road, en Muswell Hill, y se marchó a Los Ángeles, donde dejó las cintas de Arthur en Reprise con vistas a su inminente lanzamiento en Estados Unidos. Finalmente, se acordó que la edición del álbum tendría lugar el 10 de octubre y The Kinks comenzaron a prepararse para una gira de promoción por Estados Unidos, para la cual deberían viajar el 17 de ese mismo mes. El comienzo del rodaje de la serie de televisión se fijó finalmente para el 1 de diciembre. Contrataron a Roy Stonehouse como diseñador, mientras se completaba el casting; sin embargo, en el último minuto, el rodaje tuvo que cancelarse por falta de presupuesto, ya que el productor no logró el respaldo económico necesario. Davies y Mitchell terminaron frustrados por haber perdido un año entero de trabajo. Doug Hinman dijo que Davies había visto «una vez más arruinadas sus grandes visiones artísticas por culpa de la burocracia y la política interna».

Arthur (Or the Decline and Fall of the British Empire) se editó simultáneamente en Estados Unidos y el Reino Unido, el 10 de octubre de 1969, en dos versiones, mono y estéreo. El álbum sentó las bases para el retorno de The Kinks a los escenarios de Estados Unidos, que tendría lugar a finales de año, además de allanar el camino para un éxito comercial todavía mayor, el del sencillo de 1970 «Lola». Al igual que ocurriera con Village Green, el álbum no vendió todo lo bien que se hubiese deseado: en parte debido a que cuando llegó al mercado (con cierto retraso por la suspensión del programa televisivo que debía acompañarlo), ya había salido a la venta Tommy de The Who y Arthur recibió críticas porque había gente que pensaba que intentaban imitarlo.

En el momento en que las sesiones de grabación estaban a punto de concluir, en junio de 1969, la pista «Drivin’» se lanzó como sencillo en el Reino Unido, con «Mindless Child of Motherhood» como cara B. Fue la primera vez desde la irrupción de la banda en el mercado musical, en 1964, que uno de sus sencillos no consiguió entrar en las listas británicas. Johnny Rogan dijo: «Este era el primero de dos sencillos piloto de … Arthur y su fracaso no auguraba nada bueno». En septiembre le siguió un segundo sencillo, «Shangri-La», que nuevamente fracasó en su empeño de entrar en las listas de ventas. Además, al igual que Village Green, el álbum tampoco consiguió entrar en las listas cuando se lanzó al mercado en octubre.

En Estados Unidos, se escogió «Victoria» como sencillo principal, con la pista «Brainwashed» como cara B, lanzado la misma semana que el LP. El sencillo tuvo una acogida medianamente buena, llegando al puesto número 62 de la lista Billboard Hot 100 (la posición más alta desde su sencillo Top 20 «Sunny Afternoon» de 1966). Este éxito acarreó que se publicase también en el Reino Unido; con «Mr. Churchill Says» en la cara B, consiguió llegar al puesto número treinta. Arthur también tuvo un moderado éxito en Estados Unidos, llegando al puesto número 105 (el puesto más alto de un álbum de The Kinks desde 1965), y permaneciendo en listas veinte semanas.

Reprise Records, la discográfica de The Kinks en Estados Unidos, diseñó una elaborada campaña de marketing para Arthur a principios de 1969. Uno de sus elementos más destacados fue el lanzamiento de un paquete promocional, titulado God Save The Kinks, que contenía varios objetos, entre ellos una guía del consumidor para los álbumes de la banda, una bolsa de «hierba» del «Daviesland village green» y un LP titulado Then, Now and Inbetween. Además incluía una carta de recomendación escrita por Hal Halverstadt, creativo de Warner/Reprise, parte de la cual dice: «… [Llegamos] a creer que The Kinks no lo han tenido en absoluto … Hay que apoyar, alentar y aclamar a The Kinks. Y salvarlos». La campaña comenzó oficialmente el 3 de julio, durante una reunión entre Ray Davies y los directivos de Reprise en Burbank, California. Como parte de la campaña, y para dar una imagen «fuera de la ley» de la banda, Reprise llegó a considerar la idea de filtrar a la prensa historias falsas, relacionadas con la posesión de marihuana y evasión de impuestos. Ray dijo que la idea era «una locura», por lo que se abandonó la propuesta; sin embargo, algunas de estas historias se usaron a la hora de lanzar Arthur.

El diseño gráfico del álbum fue obra de Bob Lawrie. El álbum venía dentro de una carpeta desplegable e incluía un encarte interior troquelado (que mostraba a la Reina Victoria, sujetando una casa en cuyo interior se encontraba Arthur Morgan), con las letras de las canciones en el reverso. Los textos de la carpeta fueron escritos por Geoffrey Cannon y Julian Mitchell en el Reino Unido; en Estados Unidos las notas de John Mendelssohn reemplazaron a las de Cannon.

En el momento de su lanzamiento, el álbum fue muy bien recibido por la crítica, especialmente por la prensa musical estadounidense. Fue favorablemente comparado con obras contemporáneas como Tommy de The Who, aparecido meses antes. En la revista Rolling Stone, la reseña ocupó el espacio central de la publicación, con reseñas consecutivas de Mike Daly y Greil Marcus. Daly dijo que era «un álbum que es una obra maestra a todos los niveles: lo mejor de Ray Davies, el supremo logro de The Kinks». Marcus también alabó el disco diciendo: «Menos ambicioso que Tommy y mucho más musical […] Arthur es indudablemente el mejor álbum británico de 1969. Demuestra que Pete Townshend todavía tiene mundos por conquistar y que The Beatles tienen mucho que recorrer». Una reseña de Sal Imam en la revista Fusion de Boston decía que «si Tommy fue la gran ópera rock, entonces Arthur es seguramente el mejor musical de rock». En su columna de Consumer Guide, Robert Christgau de The Village Voice otorgó una reseña positiva al disco, al sostener que, aunque las letras de Ray Davies podían resultar «pretenciosas a veces», el álbum tenía «una música y una producción excelentes», además de matizar que no era el mejor disco británico del año, sino más bien el quinto.

En el Reino Unido, el álbum no fue tan bien recibido, aunque las críticas fueron, en general, positivas. Disc & Music Echo comentó que «Arthur funciona como música completa porque es básico y simple y agradable al oído, y evoca con fuerza imágenes visuales». Melody Maker secundó los comentarios de Mike Daly de Rolling Stone, al afirmar nuevamente que era «Ray Davies en su mejor momento» y añadir que era «hermosamente británico hasta la médula». Posteriormente, Doug Hinman comentó sobre la recepción del álbum en el Reino Unido: «En la prensa especializada británica hubo menos alharaca y la cobertura fue relativamente rutinaria, aunque todos se dieron cuenta de su condición de ópera rock».

Hoy en día, el álbum, en general, sigue recibiendo críticas positivas. Stephen Thomas Erlewine, de Allmusic, afirmó que Arthur es «uno de los álbumes conceptuales más efectivos de la historia del rock, además de uno de los mejores y más influyentes álbumes de pop británico de su era»; y, en 2003, Matt Golden de la revista Stylus dijo que era «la mejor ópera rock de la historia». Adrian Denning comentó que era «una gran […] colección de canciones de Kinks» sin «ningún relleno en absoluto». Georgiy Starostin escribió una reseña muy positiva de Arthur y le concedió un máximo de diez puntos sobre diez. Starostin lo consideró el mejor disco de The Kinks, además de mencionar que las melodías, aun siendo simples, «son increíblemente pegadizas, graciosas y sinceras, airadas y enloquecidas a veces, emotivas y místicas en otros momentos». La revista mexicana Switch incluyó a Arthur en su lista de los 100 mejores álbumes del siglo XX en 1999, mientras que en 2003 Mojo lo incluyó en su lista de los 50 álbumes más excéntricos.

La historia del álbum está parcialmente inspirada en la hermana mayor de los hermanos Ray y Dave Davies, Rose, quien emigró a Australia en 1964 con su esposo, Arthur Anning. Su marcha destrozó a Ray Davies y le sirvió de inspiración para componer la canción «Rosie Won’t You Please Come Home», que se incluye en el álbum de 1966, Face to Face. El personaje principal del álbum, el ficticio Arthur Morgan, basado en parte en Arthur Anning, es un instalador de alfombras, cuya familia atraviesa una difícil situación en la Inglaterra de la posguerra. El escritor Julian Mitchell detalló la trama y los personajes a fondo, explicándolo en las anotaciones del LP:

Arthur Morgan […] vive en un suburbio de Londres, en una calle llamada Shangri-La, con un jardín y un coche y una mujer llamada Rose y un hijo llamado Derek, que está casado con Liz, con dos adorables niños, Terry y Marilyn. Derek y Liz y Terry y Marilyn van a emigrar a Australia. Arthur tenía otro hijo, llamado Eddie. Se llamaba así por el hermano de Arthur, muerto en la batalla del Somme. El Eddie de Arthur murió también, en Corea.

Davies luego comentó en su autobiografía, X-Ray, que Arthur Anning luego «me dijo que […] sabía que [Arthur] estaba parcialmente inspirado en él […] [aquello] le recordaba a casa […] Le dije a Arthur que me sentía culpable por haberle usado como tema para una canción, pero rechazó mis disculpas, diciendo que se sentía alabado». Con la nostalgia como tema subyacente, las canciones describen la Inglaterra que Arthur conoció («Shangri-La», «Young y Innocent Days»)

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, la promesa de una vida mejor en Australia para uno de sus hijos («Australia»), el vacío de una superficial vida en su hogar («Shangri-La»), la determinación de los británicos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial («Mr. Churchill Says») y la muerte de su hermano en la Primera Guerra Mundial («Some Mother’s Son»).

Todas las canciones escritas y compuestas por Ray Davies.

Markomannia-Zwischenfall

Der Markomannia-Zwischenfall war ein deutsch-haitianischer Konflikt im Jahre 1902, der nach dem Hamburger Dampfer Markomannia benannt wurde.

Die Markomannia (3335 BRT, 1890) war ein Dampfer der HAPAG, der im Liniendienst zwischen Westindien und Hamburg eingesetzt wurde. Am 2. September 1902 wurde der Dampfer in der Höhe der haitianischen Hafenstadt Cap-Haïtien von dem haitianischen Kanonenboot Crête-à-Pierrot gestoppt und auf Konterbande untersucht. Die Crête à Pierrot gehörte zu einer Rebellenfraktion unter Anténor Firmin, die sich im Aufstand gegen die provisorische Regierung von Präsident Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal befand. Der Kommandant der Crête à Pierrot war ein englischer Söldner namens Read, er unterstand dem haitianischen Admiral schottischer Abstammung Hammerton Killick (1856–1902). Read ging davon aus, dass die Markomannia Waffen und Munition für die Truppen der Regierung transportierte. Der Dampfer wurde von einem Enterkommando durchsucht. Trotz der Proteste von Kapitän Nansen und dem deutschen Konsul von Cap-Haïtien beschlagnahmte das Kommando Waffen und Munition und lud diese auf die Crête à Pierrot über. Die Markomannia konnte danach ihre Reise fortsetzen. Außer der Reiseunterbrechung war der HAPAG kein materieller Schaden entstanden.

Der deutsche Ministerresident in der haitianischen Hauptstadt Port-au-Prince, Francsen, forderte umgehend ein deutsches Kriegsschiff an, da während des Bürgerkriegs bereits deutsche Residenten zu Schaden gekommen waren. Die Reichsregierung gab dieser Forderung nach, da die provisorische Regierung die Crête à Pierrot bereits am 25. Juli 1902 zum Piraten erklärt hatte

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, nachdem sich Admiral Killick für die aufständische Seite von Firmin erklärt hatte. Killick hatte über die haitianischen Gewässer eine Seeblockade verhängt, die aber von den USA mangels Effektivität nicht anerkannt wurde. Trotzdem hatte Killick bereits Mitte August 1902 den US-amerikanischen Dampfer Paloma, die ebenfalls Waffen an Bord mit führte, am Einlaufen in Cap-Haïtien gehindert.

Am 5. September 1902 erhielt Korvettenkapitän Richard Eckermann (1862–1916), der Kommandant des deutschen Kanonenboots Panther, in Port-au-Prince von Francsen persönlich den Befehl zum Aufbringen der Crête à Pierrot. Die Panther lief sofort aus und machte sich auf die Suche nach dem haitianischen Kriegsschiff. Das Kanonenboot fuhr dabei kriegsmäßig abgeblendet. Bereits am nächsten Tag, dem 6. September, wurde die Crête à Pierrot im Hafen von Gonaives entdeckt. Killick war die Anwesenheit deutscher Kriegsschiffe in Westindien aufgrund gekappter Telegrafenleitungen nicht bekannt und er war daher nicht auf ein Gefecht vorbereitet. Eckermann forderte Killick umgehend zur Übergabe auf. Der Abzug der 150-köpfigen Besatzung der Crête à Pierrot wurde gewährt, da sich Eckermann nicht in der Lage sah

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Killick ging scheinbar auf Eckermanns Forderungen ein und strich die Flagge. Als jedoch ein Prisenkommando zur Crête à Pierrot übersetzte, erfolgten an Bord mehrere Explosionen. Eckermann entschloss sich nun trotz einer Intervention des deutschen Konsularagenten von Gonaives, der deutschfeindliche Ausschreitungen fürchtete, zur Vernichtung des Kanonenboots. Das Schiff wurde unter Feuer genommen und sank auf den Grund des Hafenbeckens. Killick war offenbar das einzige Besatzungsmitglied gewesen, das an Bord verblieben war. Seine Leiche wurde später geborgen.

An Bord der Panther befand sich auch der Marineoffizier und spätere Schriftsteller und Freikorpsführer Bogislav von Selchow, der die Versenkung der Crête à Pierrot 1936 in seinen Memoiren Hundert Tage aus meinem Leben schilderte.

Aufgrund der Erregung in der haitianischen Bevölkerung lief die Panther vorerst keine nordhaitianischen Häfen an. Zu Ausschreitungen gegenüber deutschen Residenten kam es offenbar nicht, zumal Firmin prinzipiell als sehr deutschfreundlich galt. Für die provisorische Regierung

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, die über keine Marinestreitkräfte verfügte, war die Intervention der Großmacht Deutschland eine willkommene Verstärkung ihrer militärischen Möglichkeiten, da nun über See ungehindert Waffentransporte, auch aus dem Ausland, verschifft werden konnten.

1943 wurde von Haiti eine Briefmarke mit dem Konterfei Killicks herausgebracht. Außerdem erschien im gleichen Jahr ein Theaterstück über ihn von Charles Moravia: L’amiral Killick: drame historique aux trois tableaus (Port-au-Prince 1943). In der Kriegsmarine wurde der Tag der Versenkung der Crête als traditionswürdiges Ereignis aufgenommen.