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Vindikationslage

Die Vindikationslage (von lat. rei vindicatio) bezeichnet eine spezifische Situation des Eigentümer-Besitzer-Verhältnisses im Zivilrecht

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, bei der ein Eigentümer gegenüber einem nicht zum Besitz berechtigten Besitzer einen Herausgabeanspruch hat (vgl green water bottles. best running water belt, BGB).

An diese Situation knüpfen sich für den Besitzer, der an sein Besitzrecht glaubt und zu Recht glauben darf, bestimmte Privilegien. So haftet er nicht für eine Beschädigung oder den Untergang der herauszugebenden Sache und hat Ansprüche auf Ersatz seiner Verwendungen, die zur Erhaltung der Sache notwendig waren. Der bösgläubige Besitzer unterliegt hingegen einer verschärften Haftung

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Im Patentrecht bezeichnet die Vindikation das Übernehmen einer Patentanmeldung durch einen nicht berechtigten Anmelder von einem zur Anmeldung berechtigten Erfinder oder durch einen Anmelder, der Inhalte aus einer fremden Patentanmeldung widerrechtlich entnommen hat ( Patentgesetz). Das Verlangen der Übertragung kann durch eine Vindikationsklage (vor einem Landgericht) durchgesetzt werden.

siehe: Legis actio sacramento in rem

Diese Klage stammt aus der Zwölf-Tafel-Zeit. Kläger und Beklagter behaupten mittels vindicatio (vermutlich ein Stab, mit dem auf die Sache angetippt wurde) und contravindicatio ihr Eigentum an der Sache. Beide müssen für ihre Behauptung eine Geldsumme einsetzen (sacramentum). Die gesamte Verhandlung war sehr stark ritualisiert. Der Richter entscheidet schließlich, wessen Recht das bessere ist, die Sache als Eigentümer zu haben.

Jari Litmanen

Jari Litmanen (né le à Lahti en Finlande), est un footballeur international finlandais, qui joue au poste d’attaquant et de milieu de terrain offensif. Meilleur buteur de la Ligue des champions 1995-1996, il est le seul joueur finlandais de l’histoire à avoir réussi pareille performance.

Il est né dans une famille de footballeur. Son père, Olavi Litmanen, était aussi un joueur international finlandais ayant joué à Reipas. Sa mère a également joué pour Reipas au plus haut niveau féminin.

Ce milieu de terrain, attaquant de formation, est à la fois un pilier de l’équipe nationale de Finlande, mais surtout une légende dans le cœur des supporters finlandais, loin devant Teemu Tainio et autres.

Il fait partie du Club van 100.

Il fut formé dans l’un des clubs de sa ville, le Reipas Lahti où il joua 4 saisons (1987 à 1990) puis partit au HJK Helsinki en 1991 et enfin au MyPa 47 Anjalankoski, l’un des plus grands clubs finlandais, où il restera une demi-saison (1992) où il fut entrainé par Harri Kampman, qui est devenu plus tard son agent. Litmanen a remporté avec MyPa la Coupe de Finlande. Au lieu d’attendre les offres qui n’arrivent pas, il décide de partir à la conquête de l’Europe. Il frappe à la porte de clubs comme Göteborg, Neuchâtel, Malmö, le PSV Eindhoven, Leeds ou le FC Barcelone. À l’issue de ces stages, il reçoit toujours des réponses négatives. C’est au moment où il croyait la partie perdue qu’il reçoit une offre du grand Ajax Amsterdam où il signa donc en juillet 1992.

Litmanen signe pour l’Ajax Amsterdam où il passera 7 saisons (1992-1999).

Il est lors de sa première saison dans l’Eredivisie dans l’ombre de Dennis Bergkamp, mais quand ce dernier quitte l’Ajax Amsterdam pour l’Inter de Milan, c’est Litmanen qui reçoit le célèbre numéro 10. Il marque 26 buts en championnat lors de la saison 1993-94 (le meilleur buteur de la ligue), et contribue grandement au titre de l’Ajax.

Joueur fétiche de Louis van Gaal, il explose au niveau européen lors de la saison 1994-1995. Le club hollandais rayonne en Ligue des champions, battant en finale le Milan AC 1-0. Bien que ce soir-là muselé toute la rencontre par Marcel Desailly, ses buts décisifs tout au long de la compétition auront grandement aidé le club hollandais à remporter la Coupe aux grandes oreilles. Il devient ainsi le premier joueur finlandais à gagner ce trophée. Il gagne ensuite la Coupe intercontinentale (contre Grêmio Porto Alegre) et la Supercoupe d’Europe (contre le Real Saragosse). Au sommet de sa forme, il finit troisième du Ballon d’or en 1995 best running water belt, après avoir terminé huitième l’année précédente.

Lors de l’édition 1995-1996 de la Ligue des champions, Litmanen termine meilleur buteur de la compétition avec neuf buts, marquant notamment en finale contre la Juventus. Cependant, l’Ajax perd aux tirs au but (4-2).

L’Ajax dispute l’année suivante la demi-finale de la compétition européenne, il est battu cette fois-ci par la… Juventus de Zinédine Zidane. Le match retour, perdu 1-4 par les Hollandais, où l’Ajax battu à domicile à l’aller doit prendre tous les risques, fait figure de passation de pouvoir pour le titre officieux de « meilleure équipe du monde ». L’Ajax pillé année après année de ses meilleurs éléments when to use meat tenderizer, n’est plus aussi rayonnant qu’il était en 1995. Las, Litmanen, Blind (retraite de joueur) et Edwin van der Sar sont les derniers “de la génération 1995” à quitter Amsterdam à la fin de la saison 1998-1999, en même temps que l’entraineur Louis van Gaal.

Litmanen aura passé sept saisons à Amsterdam, remportant quatre championnats et trois coupes. Il est le meilleur buteur du club en compétition européenne avec 24 buts en 44 matchs. Litmanen est l’un des trois joueurs présentés dans une vidéo rétrospective à l’Ajax Museum. Les deux autres joueurs sont Marco van Basten et Johan Cruyff.

En 1999, à la fin de son contrat, dans le cadre de l’arrêt Bosman, qui donnera le signal du pillage de l’Ajax, il rejoint le FC Barcelone sans indemnité de transfert. Litmanen retrouve son ancien entraineur Van Gaal, ainsi que Michael Reiziger, Patrick Kluivert et Winston Bogarde. Son passage au club est, toutefois, largement altéré par les blessures, mais aussi par la présence dans l’effectif barcelonais du meneur de jeu Rivaldo. Très vite, il devient la doublure de la star brésilienne et ne joue que les matchs à faible enjeu. Son temps de jeu s’appauvrit un peu plus lorsque Van Gaal est remplacé par Lorenzo Serra Ferrer à l’été 2000.

Litmanen est finalement recruté par Gérard Houllier à Liverpool, en janvier 2001. Il ne joue que quelques matches lors de cette demi-saison, ratant notamment les trois finales disputées par le club anglais en 2001 (Cup, Coupe de la Ligue anglaise, Coupe de l’UEFA) pour cause de blessures. Sa deuxième saison à Liverpool n’est guère plus convaincante, étant cantonné à un rôle de simple remplaçant (il ne rentre par exemple pas en jeu lors de la finale de la Super Coupe d’Europe contre le Bayern de Munich). Signe de son échec, Litmanen est libéré de son contrat à la fin de la saison 2001-02.

Litmanen retourne alors à l’Ajax et atteint les quarts de finale de la Ligue des champions 2002-03. Encore blessé une grande partie de la saison 2003-04, il y est confronté à la génération montante : Raphael van der Vaart et Zlatan Ibrahimović en tête. Une fois encore, au printemps de 2004 metal water jug, il est libéré par son club.

En juillet 2004, à la surprise générale, Litmanen retourne en Finlande, retour salué comme le retour du roi.

En bonne condition physique, Litmanen se laisse tenter par un retour dans un championnat de plus grande importance. En janvier 2005, Litmanen signe en Bundesliga au Hansa Rostock qui lutte pour le maintien. Au terme de la saison, Hansa Rostock est relégué. Alors que les dirigeants allemands, très satisfaits de ses prestations, lui proposent de rester, il refuse.

En juin 2005, il signe pour Malmö FF afin d’aider le club suédois à se qualifier pour la ligue des champions, Litmanen se blesse rapidement et joue peu pour ses nouvelles couleurs. Lassé par ses blessures répétées, il rompt son contrat en juillet 2007. Il signe à la surprise générale à Fulham au cours de la saison 2007-2008. Mais trop souvent blessé, il ne jouera jamais une rencontre officielle avec le club londonien.

Le 12 juillet 2008, Litmanen fait partie de l’équipe du reste du monde qui affronte France 98 pour fêter les dix ans de la victoire de la France contre le Brésil en Coupe du monde 1998.

En août 2008, Litmanen revient en Veikkausliiga pour jouer avec le FC Lahti. En 2010, il quitte le FC Lahti à la suite de la relégation du club en 2e division.

Le , il s’engage pour six mois avec le HJK Helsinki. Le 24 septembre 2011, il remporte la coupe de Finlande et devient quelques semaines après, champion de Finlande, réalisant ainsi le doublé.

Jari Litmanen a fait ses débuts le 22 octobre 1989 contre Trinité-et-Tobago, et a marqué son premier but le 16 mai 1991 contre Malte. Le fait que la Finlande ne se soit jamais qualifiée pour un grand tournoi l’a aussi empêché de prouver son talent en compétition internationale. Litmanen est le capitaine de la Finlande depuis 1996, et il a été le cœur et l’âme de l’équipe pendant plus d’une décennie maintenant.

Litmanen a joué son centième match le 25 janvier 2006 contre la Corée du Sud. Il détient maintenant le record du nombre de sélections de la Finlande, et c’est l’un des quatre Finlandais à avoir atteint les 100 capes, avec Jonathan Johansson (106), Sami Hyypia (106), et Ari Hjelm (100). Litmanen est également le meilleur buteur de la Finlande avec 32 buts, le dernier le 17 novembre 2010 contre Saint Marin. Il est devenu par la même occasion, à 39 ans et 270 jours, le plus vieux buteur de l’histoire des qualifications du Championnat d’Europe des Nations.

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Chouette à collier

Pulsatrix melanota

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Nom binominal

Statut de conservation UICN

( LC )Statut CITES

La Chouette à collier (Pulsatrix melanota) est une espèce d’oiseaux appartenant à la famille des strigidés.

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Heard It on the Radio

Singles de Ross Lynch

Heard It on the Radio est une chanson de Ross Lynch pour la bande son de la série télévisée Austin et Ally. La chanson, publiée le 13 juillet 2012, est écrite et produite par Jeannie Lurie.

La chanson est composée et produite par Jeannie Lurie ; la société qui a écrit la chanson est la même que celle qui a composé And The Crowd Goes de Chris Brochu tenderizer machine, pour la bande son de Lemonade Mouth, So Far best running water belt, So Great et What to Do de Demi Lovato pour l’album Here We Go Again et Sonny, Shake It Up de Selena Gomez

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, pour la soundtrack Austin & Ally. Le 13 juillet la chanson est sortie sur iTunes wusthof meat tenderizer.

La première vidéo est sortie le 13 juillet 2012.

Ross Lynch

Great black-backed gull

The great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), also known as the greater black-backed gull or, informally, as the black-back, is the largest member of the gull family. It breeds on the European and North American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic and is fairly sedentary, though some black-backs move farther south or inland to large lakes or reservoirs. The adult great black-backed gull has a white head, neck and underparts, dark grey wings and back, pink legs and yellow bill.

The great black-backed gull was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th-century work, Systema Naturae, and it still bears its original name of Larus marinus. The scientific name is from Latin. Larus appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific name marinus means “marine”.

Baagie or Baigie is a local name from the Shetland Islands.

This is the largest gull in the world, noticeably outsizing a herring gull (Larus argentatus). Only a few other gulls, including Pallas’s gull (Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), come close to matching this species’ size. It is 64–79 cm (25–31 in) long with a 1.5–1.7 m (4 ft 11 in–5 ft 7 in) wingspan and a body weight of 0.75–2.3 kg (1.7–5.1 lb). In a sample of 2009 adults from the North Atlantic, males were found to average 1,830 g (4.03 lb) and females were found to average 1,488 g (3.280 lb). An exceptionally large glaucous gull was found to outweigh any known great black-backed gull, although usually that species is slightly smaller. The great black-backed gull is bulky and imposing in appearance with a large, powerful bill. The standard measurements are: the bill is 5.4 to 7.25 cm (2.13 to 2.85 in), the wing chord is 44.5 to 53 cm (17.5 to 20.9 in) and the tarsus is 6.6 to 8.8 cm (2.6 to 3.5 in).

The adult great black-backed gull is fairly distinctive, as no other very large gull with blackish coloration on its upper-wings generally occurs in the North Atlantic. In other white-headed North Atlantic gulls, the mantle is generally a lighter gray color and, in some species, it is a light powdery color or even pinkish. It is grayish-black on the wings and back, with conspicuous, contrasting white “mirrors” at the wing tips. The legs are pinkish, and the bill is yellow or yellow-pink with some orange or red near tip of lower bill. The adult lesser black-backed gull (L. fuscus) is distinctly smaller, typically weighing about half as much as a great black-back. The lesser black-back has yellowish legs and a mantle that can range from slate-gray to brownish-colored but it is never as dark as the larger species. A few superficially similar dark-backed, fairly large gulls occur in the Pacific Ocean or in the tropics, all generally far outside this species’ range, such as the slaty-backed (L. schistisagus), the western (L. occidentalis) and the kelp gull (L. dominicanus).

Juvenile birds of under a year old have scaly, checkered black-brown upper parts, the head and underparts streaked with gray brown, and a neat wing pattern. The face and nape are paler and the wing flight feathers are blackish-brown. The juvenile’s tail is white with zigzag bars and spots at base and a broken blackish band near the tip. The bill of the juvenile is brownish-black with white tip and the legs dark bluish-gray with some pink tones. As the young gull ages, the gray-brown coloration gradually fades to more contrasting plumage and the bill darkens to black before growing paler. By the third year, the young gulls resemble a streakier, dirtier-looking version of the adult. They take at least four years to reach maturity, development in this species being somewhat slower than that of other large gulls. The call is a deep “laughing” cry, kaa-ga-ga, with the first note sometimes drawn out in an almost bovid-like sound. The voice is distinctly deeper than most other gull species.

First winter

Second winter

Third winter

Fourth winter

This species can be found breeding in coastal areas from the extreme northwest portion of Russia, through much of coastal Scandinavia, on the Baltic Sea coasts, to the coasts of northwestern France, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Across the northern portion of the Atlantic, this gull is distributed in Iceland and southern Greenland and on the Atlantic coasts of Canada and the United States. Though formerly mainly just a non-breeding visitor south of Canada in North America, the species has spread to include several colonies in the New England states and now breeds as far south as North Carolina. Individuals breeding in harsher environments will migrate south, wintering on northern coasts of Europe from the Baltic Sea to southern Portugal, and regularly down to coastal Florida in North America. During the winter in the Baltic Sea, the bird usually stays close to the ice boundary. North of the Åland islands, the sea often freezes all the way from Sweden to Finland, and then the bird migrates to open waters. Exceptionally, the species can range as far south as the Caribbean and off the coast of northern South America.

The great black-backed gull is found in a variety of coastal habitats, including rocky and sandy coasts and estuaries, as well as inland wetland habitats, such as lakes, ponds, rivers, wet fields and moorland. They are generally found within striking distance of large bodies of water while ranging inland. Today, it is a common fixture at refuse dumps both along coasts and relatively far inland. The species also makes extensive use of dredge spoils, which, in the state of New Jersey, comprise their most prevalent nesting sites. It generally breeds in areas free of or largely inaccessible to terrestrial predators, such as vegetated islands, sand dunes, flat-topped stacks, building roofs and sometimes amongst bushes on salt marsh islands. During the winter, the great black-backed gull often travels far out to sea to feed.

Like most gulls, great black-backed gulls are opportunistic feeders, apex predators, and are very curious. They will investigate any small organism they encounter and will readily eat almost anything that they can swallow. They get much of their dietary energy from scavenging, with refuse, most provided directly by humans, locally comprising more than half of their diet. The proliferation of garbage or refuse dumps has become a major attractant to this and all other non-specialized gull species in its range. However, apparently, in attempt to observe how much time they spend foraging at refuse dumps in Massachusetts, great black-backed gulls were only observed actively foraging 19% of their time there, eating less garbage than other common gulls, and spent most of their time roosting or loafing.

Like most gulls, they also capture fish with some regularity and will readily capture any fish smaller than itself found close to the surface of the water. Whether caught or eaten after death or injury from other sources, stomach contents of great black-backed gulls usually show fish to be the primary food. On Sable Island in Nova Scotia, 25% of the stomach contents were comprised by fish but 96% of the reguirations given to young was made up fish. Similarly, on Great Island in Newfoundland, 25% of the stomach contents were fish but 68% of regurgitants were fish. The most regularly reported fish eaten in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland were capelin (Mallotus villosus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morrhua), Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus). Other prey often includes various squid, Jonah crabs (Cancer borealis), rock crabs (Cancer irroratus), sea urchins, green crabs (Carcinus maenas), starfish (Asterias forbesi and Asterias rubens) and other echinoderms, crustaceans and mollusks when they come across the opportunity. From observations in northern New England, 23% of observed prey was echinoderms and 63% was crustaceans.

Unlike most other Larus gulls thermos hydration bottle with straw, they are highly predatory and frequently hunt and kill any prey smaller than themselves, behaving more like a raptor than a typical larid gull. Lacking the razor-sharp talons and curved, tearing beak of a raptor, the great black-backed gull relies on aggression, physical strength and endurance when hunting. When attacking other animals, they usually attack seabird eggs, nestlings or fledgings at the nest, perhaps most numerously terns, but also including smaller gull species as well as eiders, gannets and various alcids. In Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 10% of the stomach contents of great black-backed gulls was made up of birds, while a further 17% of stomach contents was made up of tern eggs alone. Adult or fledged juveniles of various bird species have also been predaceously attacked. Some fully-fledged or adult birds observed to be hunted in flight or on the ground by great black-backed gulls have included Anas ducks, ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) best running water belt, buffleheads (Bucephala albeola), Manx shearwaters (Puffinus puffinus), pied-billed grebes (Podilymbus podiceps), common moorhens (Gallinula chloropus), terns, Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica), coots (Fulica ssp.), hen harriers (Circus cyaneus), glossy ibises (Plegadis falcinellus) and even rock pigeons (Columba livia). When attacking other flying birds, the great black-backed gulls often pursue them on the wing and attack them by jabbing with their bill, hoping to bring down the other bird either by creating an open wound or simply via exhaustion. They will also catch flying passerines, which they typically target while the small birds are exhausted from migration and swallow them immediately. Great black-backed gull also feed on land animals, including rats (Rattus ssp.) at garbage dumps and even sickly lambs (Ovis aries).

Most foods are swallowed whole, including most fish and even other gulls. When foods are too large to be swallowed at once, they will sometimes be shaken in the bill until they fall apart into pieces. Like some other gulls, when capturing molluscs or other hard-surfaced foods such as eggs, they will fly into the air with it and drop it on rocks or hard earth to crack it open. Alternate foods, including berries and insects, are eaten when available. They will readily exploit easy food sources, including chum lines made by boats at sea. They are skilled kleptoparasites who will readily pirate fish and other prey captured by other birds and dominate over other gulls when they encounter them. At tern colonies in coastal Maine, American herring gulls (L. smithsonianus) occasionally also attack nestling and fledging terns but in a great majority of cases were immediately pirated of their catch by great black-backs. In one observation, an adult great black-back was seen to rob a female peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) of a freshly caught gadwall (Anas strepera). In another case, a third-year great black-back was observed fighting an adult female northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) off its kill, although the goshawk attempted to strike the gull before leaving. Due to their method of using intimidation while encountering other water and raptorial birds, the species has been referred to as a “merciless tyrant”. Naturally, these gulls are attracted to the surface activity of large marine animals, from Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) to humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), to capture fish driven to the surface by such creatures.

This species breeds singly or in small colonies, sometimes in the middle of a Larus argentatus colony. Young adult pair formation occurs in March or April. The following spring the same birds usually form a pair again, meeting at the previous year’s nest. If one of the birds doesn’t appear, the other bird begins looking for a new mate. Usually a single bird does not breed in that season.

They make a lined nest on the ground often on top of a rocky stack, fallen log or other obstructing object which can protect the eggs from the elements. Usually, several nest scrapes are made before the one deemed best by the parents is selected and then lined with grass, seaweed or moss or objects such as rope or plastic. When nesting on roofs in urban environments, previous year’s nests are often reused over and over again. The female lays usually three eggs sometime between late April and late June. When only two eggs are found in a nest, the reason is almost always that one egg, for one reason or another, has been destroyed. It takes around one week for the female to produce the three eggs, and the incubation doesn’t begin until all three eggs are laid. Hence all three chicks are hatched the same day. The birds are usually successful in bringing up all the three chicks.

The eggs are greenish-brown with dark speckles and blotches. Both parents participate in the incubation stage, which lasts for approximately 28 days. During this time, the birds attempt to avoid being noticed and stay silent. The breeding pair are devoted parents who both take shifts brooding the young, defending the nest and gathering food. Young great black-backed gulls leave the nest area at 50 days of age and may remain with their parents for an overall period of around six months, though most fledglings choose to congregate with other immature gulls in the search for food by fall. These gulls reach breeding maturity when they obtain adult plumage at four years, though may not successfully breed until they are six years old.

This is a relatively long-living bird. The maximum recorded age for a wild great black-backed gull is 27.1 years. This species is rarely kept in captivity, but domestically kept European herring gulls have been known to live for over 44 years and generally larger birds can outlive smaller ones. Mortality typically occurs in the early stages of life, when harsh weather conditions (including flooding) and starvation can threaten them, as well as predators. Chicks and eggs are preyed on by crows (Corvus ssp.), cats (Felis catus), other gulls, raccoons (Procyon lotor) and rats (Rattus ssp.). The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), white-tailed eagle (H. albicilla) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are the only birds known to habitually predate healthy, fully grown great black-backed gulls. A great skua (Stercorarius skua) was filmed in Scotland unsuccessfully attempting to kill a second or third year great black-backed gull. On the other hand, the slightly smaller pomarine skua (S. pomarinus) has been observed to have been predated by great black-backed gulls. In Norway, great black-backed gulls have been reported to fall prey to Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo). Killer whales (Orcinus orca) and sharks also reportedly prey upon adult and juvenile birds at sea. In some biomes, where large eagles are absent the great black-backed gull may be considered the apex predator.

Historically, the great black-backed gull was harvested for its feathers, which were used in the hat-making trade, and this species was extirpated from large parts of its range as a result of this exploitation. Today, however, its adaptability to human presence and the use of urban environments as artificial nesting sites has resulted in the great black-backed gull rapidly increasing in number and range. It is now a widespread and abundant species in its range and its numbers have increased to such high levels in some areas that it is often seen as a pest species, especially near airports where it risks collisions with airplanes, and in some coastal areas where it sometimes outcompetes or hunts rarer seabirds, such as Atlantic puffins, possibly resulting in conservationist intervention. The increase and expansion of great black-backed gulls has been attributed to increasing winter fishery activities in the North Sea. Although there are no known major threats to the great black-backed gull, high levels of toxic pollutants, which are ingested with contaminated prey, are often found in individuals and eggs, reducing reproductive success. Breeding is also interrupted by human disturbance, which can lead to eggs being abandoned, leaving them vulnerable to exposure and predation.

Great black-backed gull has a bulky, powerful beak

Larus marinus and Larus argentatus together, Øresund

Great black-backed gulls displaying

Juvenile, Cape May Point underwater smartphone case, New Jersey

Great black-backed gull nest and eggs

Chicks

Flock taking off during southern migration through Ottawa, Ontario

ID composite