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SunTour

SunTour® (Maeda) was the most important Japanese manufacturer of bicycle components based in Osaka until 1988, when Sakae Ringyo Company (abbreviated S.R.), a major Japanese maker of aluminum parts usa soccer goalie, particularly cranks and seat posts, bought what was left of the bankrupt SunTour, and the combined companies are now known as SR-SunTour. SunTour reached a zenith of sales and commercial success from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s. Its products range from suspension forks to derailleurs.

Begun in 1912 as Maeda Iron Works Company manufacturing freewheels and sprockets, the company concentrated on producing bicycle gearing components.

In the 1950s, the company began producing its version of pull-chain, rod-guided, touring derailleurs, similar to those of French derailleur companies such as Huret and Simplex.

In 1964, Suntour invented the slant-parallelogram rear derailleur. The parallelogram rear derailleur had gained prominence after Campagnolo’s introduction of the “Gran Sport” in 1949, and the slant-parallelogram was an improvement of it that allowed the derailleur to maintain a more constant distance from the sprockets, resulting in easier shifting. The SunTour derailleur cost less than Campagnolo, Huret

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, Shimano, or Simplex and it performed especially well shifting under load, as when changing to a lower gear while pedaling up a steep incline. A contemporary Consumer Reports test reported that “SunTour was far and away the easiest to shift and the most certain of arriving at the right sprocket.”

Suntour’s slant-parallelogram, spring-loaded top pivot rear derailleur provided the best shifting on the market. When Suntour’s rear derailleur patent expired, the design was promptly copied by Shimano.

In 1969, SunTour was the first Japanese gear and shifter manufacturer to introduce indexed shifting on bicycles (indexed shifting appeared at least as early as the Funiculo derailleur fitted to 1935 Shultz bicycles). Although their system, called Five-Speed Click, worked well, it proved an idea ahead of its time and did not catch on with the riding public. Another design innovation was the first practical Japanese freehub — the Unit-Hub – which combined freewheel and hub in one component (unit hubs were available at least as early as the 1938 Bayliss-Wiley, probably earlier). The freehub greatly increased the strength of the rear wheel, but the idea was not pursued.

In the early 1970s, demand created by the bike boom in the United States exceeded the capacity of European manufacturers. SunTour and Shimano filled the vacuum. SunTour focused on refining existing systems and designs for mid-level and high-end products. Like Shimano, SunTour initially did not sell complete group-sets, so it teamed with other parts makers, such as Sugino for cranksets and Dia-Compe for brakes, so it could sell a complete line of SunTour branded components. Under these types of production agreements, companies did not have design control; if a cooperating component manufacturer decided not to upgrade or redesign its products, SunTour could do little about it. Shimano decided to greatly expand its research and development staff to 200 employees, enabling the company to end its component marketing agreements in order to produce hubs, pedals, brakes, and other components on its own in competition with its former partners. In comparison, SunTour chose to continue with its existing research and development staff of some 20 persons, and remained primarily a bicycle gear and shifter manufacturer.

Unlike other bicycle component manufacturers, Suntour did not charge what the market would bear, but instead charged a price that covered costs of production plus a small profit markup. As a result, a Suntour derailleur costing $10 competed against similar level products from Campagnolo ($40) and Shimano ($20). As Suntour derailleurs and shifters could be specified on many more low- and mid-priced bicycles, the company gained a reputation with the general public as a producer of only low-end equipment. This reputation would eventually hurt sales when Suntour introduced a complete high-end component group, Superbe Pro.

Despite emerging problems, Suntour continued to achieve a number of innovations, particularly in components for mountain bikes. In partnership with Sugino, it introduced the 110/74mm BCD five-bolt triple crankset for mountain bikes, which soon became an industry standard. Next was the introduction of the Micro Drive 94/56mm BCD five-bolt compact mountain bike crankset, which saved weight, increased ground clearance, and permitted lower gearing for hill-climbing. New, short-cage rear derailleurs were provided to go with the Micro Drive cassette-type cogsets. The new system was very popular, and Shimano adopted the compact drive concept two years later. SunTour’s new thumb and trigger shifters made shifting more convenient when riding off-pavement.

The company’s decision to limit funding and staff for research and development caused running issues with new products. The first sign of trouble came with returns on SunTour’s SR MounTech rear derailleur, caused by failures of the innovative spring-loaded jockey wheel that was fitted with a seal that proved inadequate to keep out dirt and mud. In road bicycle components, the company fared no better. SunTour had introduced the SuperbeTech derailleur in 1983 with a streamlined, enclosed parallelogram. However, the design was too fragile, with internal pivots and the return spring failing frequently. It took special tools to repair and reassemble a SuperbeTech derailleur, resulting in many unhappy customers. SunTour no longer had the resources to debug prototype designs before introducing them to the market, which cost the company in returns, repairs, and damaged reputation.

Another blow came when the yen was revalued in 1985. SunTour could no longer compete on costs with a slew of manufacturers producing in Taiwan and other lower labor-cost countries. Existing orders had been written in foreign currencies, rather than yen, so SunTour suffered a major loss. It had to borrow additional cash to finance a transfer of manufacturing facilities to Taiwan, as well as begin development of new mountain bike components.

In 1987, SunTour introduced its new attempt at an indexed shifting system, AccuShift. AccuShift came late to the market to compete with Shimano’s new SIS system introduced two years before, which cost SunTour dearly. With two years of lead time, Shimano could afford to require that bicycle manufacturers equip their bikes with complete SIS shifting systems, minimizing problems with product compatibility. SunTour, on the other hand, desperately needed orders, so the company could not insist on complete SunTour component groups that had been tested to ensure compatibility with AccuShift. As a consequence, major bicycle manufacturers such as Schwinn and Raleigh installed Accu-Shift on low-end bikes using inventories of older freewheels, hubs, cables, cable housings, and chains from other manufacturers. The practice resulted in a mismatched ‘system’ that did not provide the critical tolerances needed for reliable indexed shifting.

In 1987, a large Japanese engineering company called Mori Industries Inc. (with manufacturing plants in Taiwan) bought Sakae Ringyo Company.

In 1988 the SunTour name has been purchased and revived by Sakae Ringyo Company, (now owned by Mori Industries Inc.) with a capital investment of 45,000 cheap white socks,000 NT$ in Tokyo, Japan, thus becoming SR-SunTour. The new SR-SunTour parts are not compatible with the original SunTour parts.

By 1993, SunTour’s share of the market had dropped to five per cent of the U.S. market. At the end of 1994, Mori decided to shut down their bicycle component business pink socks for youth football. In March 1995 Daisuke Kobayashi and Hideo Hashizume, the former owners of SR Sakae Ringyo, arranged a management buyout. The new management took over in July, 1995, purchasing the SunTour name and the SR factory in Taiwan. Mori Industries left the bicycle component business, selling off SunTour’s Japanese facilities piecemeal.

SR SunTour USA closed its U.S. offices in early 1995. The SunTour name lived on as SR-SunTour, but the SunTour component designs did not survive. The tooling that produced the once-prized Suntour derailleurs, shifters, and associated bicycle components was sold for scrap.

Château de Groslée

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Le château de Groslée est un ancien château fort, du XIIe siècle restauré aux XVe et XVIXVIIIe siècle, centre de la seigneurie de Groslée érigée en baronnie puis en comté en 1580, qui se dresse sur la commune de Groslée-Saint-Benoît dans le département de l’Ain, en région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes.

L’ensemble des vestiges du château font l’objet d’une inscription au titre des monuments historiques par arrêté du 5 octobre 1992.

Le château de Groslée est situé dans le département français de l’Ain sur la commune de Groslée-Saint-Benoît, sur un coteau, au-dessus du bourg et dominant le Rhône.

Le château est bâti, vers 1180, par Jacques de Groslée, sénéchal de Lyon, dans l’ancienne paroisse d’Huilieux.

Vers 1305, le château fait partie des possessions des comtes de Savoie. Berlion de La Mar, vivant en 1295, en est le châtelain, en 1319. En 1323, Jocelyne de Groslée reconnait tenir ce château et son mandement en franc-fief, libre et antique, du dauphin de Viennois.

Le château, le village et la seigneurie de Groslée sont vendus en toute justice haute, moyenne et basse, vers 1420, par Antoine de Groslée, chevalier de l’ordre du collier, descendant de Jacques, n’ayant eu que deux filles de Catherine de Palagnin, son épouse, au duc Amédée VIII de Savoie qui les cèdent à Pierre de Bourbon, chevalier. Jean de Groslée, custode et chanoine-comte de Lyon, prévôt de Montjour, s’accorda ensuite avec Pierre de Bourbon pour qu’il les lui revendent, avec le consentement du duc de Savoie, et la remet par contrat en 1455 à Jacques de Groslée, seigneur de Lhuis (château de Lhuis, Lhuis), son neveu, auquel il cède tous ses droits. Ses descendants en jouirent en titre de seigneurie et de baronnie.

Par lettres du 29 juin 1580, vérifiées au Sénat et en la chambre des comptes de Savoie, le duc Charles-Emmanuel Ier de Savoie l’érige en comté, en faveur de Claude, baron de Groslée, en y unissant la seigneurie de Luys avec toutes ses dépendances et les villages et les paroisses d’Ordonnas et d’Inimont en toute justice haute, moyenne et basse.

Pierre-Pompée de Groslée, fils dudit Claude, chevalier, comte de Groslée, ne laissa qu’une fille, Claire cheap white socks, mariée à Joachim du Cros, lequel en reprit le fief en 1657.

Jacques-Laurent du Cros, comte de Groslée, laissa son comté à sa veuve, Françoise de Guérin de Tencin, dont hérita Claudine-Sophie de Guérin de Tencin, sa petite- nièce, femme de Joseph-Marie de Barral, marquis de Montferrat (Italie) football jersey images, président à mortier au parlement de Grenoble. Ce dernier reprit le fief le 19 avril 1777 et en jouissait encore lors de la convocation des États-Généraux.

Le château fut restauré aux XVe et XVIe siècles et démantelé au XVIIIe siècle ; il n’en subsiste que le donjon.

Dans le château existait une chapelle particulière. On y disait deux messes par semaine, en vertu d’une permission de l’archevêque de Lyon glass water bottle camelbak, Mgr Denis-Simon de Marquemont.

Le donjon carré du XIIe siècle est ceint d’une chemise haute et de braies que flanquent des tours rondes équipées pour le tir aux armes à feu.

Yang Li (footballer)

* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only and correct as of 24 October 2016.

Yang Li (simplified Chinese: 杨丽; traditional Chinese: 楊麗; pinyin: Yáng Lì pure glass bottle; born 26 February 1993) is a Chinese footballer who currently plays for Jiangsu Suning in the Chinese Women’s Super League. Her impressive form has subsequently drawn comparisons of her to revered Chinese striker Sun Wen.

Yang was first called up to the Chinese women’s national team ahead of the 2014 Four Nations Tournament socks on sale for cheap. She scored twice on her debut on 13 October 2014 in a 3-1 win against Mexico during the tournament. At the 2014 AFC Women’s Asian Cup, Yang was joint top goalscorer with Park Eun-sun with six goals in five games as the team finished third place and qualified for the 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup. She was ruled out of the 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup right before the tournament started due to recurring injuries cheap white socks.

China PR national football team

Posterior ligament of elbow

The posterior ligament is thin and membranous, and consists of transverse and oblique fibers.

Above cheap white socks, it is attached to the humerus immediately behind the capitulum and close to the medial margin of the trochlea, to the margins of the olecranon fossa, and to the back of the lateral epicondyle some little distance from the trochlea.

Below, it is fixed to the upper and lateral margins of the olecranon, to the posterior part of the annular ligament, and to the ulna behind the radial notch grey soccer socks.

The transverse fibers form a strong band which bridges across the olecranon fossa goalie in soccer; under cover of this band a pouch of synovial membrane and a pad of fat project into the upper part of the fossa when the joint is extended.

In the fat are a few scattered fibrous bundles, which pass from the deep surface of the transverse band to the upper part of the fossa.

This ligament is in relation, behind, with the tendon of the Triceps brachii and the Anconæus.

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray’s Anatomy (1918)