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Baldwin of Clare

Baldwin of Clare (fl. 1141) was the youngest son of Gilbert Fitz-Richard (de Clare), of the elder branch of the line of Gilbert, count of Eu, grandson of Richard the Fearless.

His mother was Adeliza, daughter of the count of Claremont, though William of Jumièges does not mention him among her sons. The manor of Clare, from which Baldwin and others of his family took their name, was one of the estates held by his grandfather Richard in Suffolk. Baldwin’s father, Gilbert, received the grant of Ceredigion (Cardiganshire) from Henry I in 1107.

On the death of Henry, Richard, the eldest brother of Baldwin, was slain, and his lands were harried by Morgan ap Owen. Stephen gave Baldwin a large sum of money to enable him to hire troops for the relief of the lands of his house. Baldwin, however, retreated without, as it seems, striking a single blow. When, in 1141, Stephen’s army was drawn up before the battle of Lincoln, the king how to tenderize roast, because his own voice was weak, deputed Baldwin to make a speech to the host. The Arundel MS. of the ‘History of Henry of Huntingdon’ (twelfth or thirteenth century) contains an outline drawing of Baldwin addressing the royal army in the presence of the king.

In this speech he set forth the goodness of the cause of Stephen and the evil character of his enemies, reviling Robert, Earl of Gloucester, as having the heart of a hare. In this battle, however, Baldwin fought bravely and received many wounds. He stood by the king to the last, and was taken prisoner with him.

He was a benefactor of the abbey of Bec.

Richard (Earl of Striguil), the invader of Ireland, was the son of his brother, Gilbert.

Baldwin married Adeline de Rollos and had a daughter.

&nbsp metal water flask;“Baldwin of Clare”. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: “Baldwin of Clare”. Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. 

Plataforma Pittsburgh

La Plataforma de Pittsburgh es el documento fundador de lo que se ha llamado Reforma Judía Estadounidense o “Reforma Clásica” metal water flask. En 1885 la UAHC (Union of American Hebrew Congregations big reusable water bottles, en español “Unión de congregaciones judías norteamericanas”) adoptó el documento llamado “Plataforma Pittsburgh”, con lo que se dio fin a las reuniones de Rabinos Reformistas Norteamericanos, realizadas en noviembre del mismo año.

La Plataforma hacía un llamamiento a los judíos estadounidenses a que adoptaran un acercamiento moderno al judaísmo. Llamaba explícitamente al rechazo de las leyes de que tenían más bien un carácter ritual, y no moral.

Se consideró a los judíos como una comunidad religiosa en una nación best place to buy football jerseys, en vez de una nación. Por esta razón, hubo un rechazo explicito al sionismo. El sionismo se consideró innecesario, ya que los judíos norteamericanos se encontraban en casa en Estados Unidos. La Plataforma de Pittsburgh también realiza un llamado a reconocer el valor del cristianismo y del islam, aunque aún mantenía la idea de que el judaísmo tenía la “mayor concepción de la idea de Dios”.

La Plataforma de Pittsburgh ayudó a dar forma a la Reforma Judía Norteamericana a través del llamado a los judíos norteamericanos a comprometerse en actos de justicia social. Hoy este principio es adoptado por el movimiento reformista junto con otros a través de Tikkun Olam (reparación del mundo).