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Dewback

Dewback is een fictieve diersoort van de planeet Tatooine in het Star Warsuniversum.

Dewbacks zijn een reptielachtige diersoort en zijn meestal groen van kleur, maar ze kunnen ook grijs, bruin, een beetje rood of zelfs een beetje blauw worden sports water bottle sets. Ze hebben een grote kop, kleine ogen en oren en een grote bek met platte, sterke tanden. De poten van de Dewback zijn kort en hebben een lange staart om het lichaam in balans te houden glass water bottles for fridge. Hun huid is bedekt met kleine schubben. Sommige ondersoorten hebben ook nog haar op de rug.

Dewbacks zijn alleseters en leven in kleine kuddes youth football uniforms. Een keer per jaar legt een vrouwtje een nest van talloze eieren. Tusken Raiders jagen op Dewbacks voor hun vlees glass bottles for water storage, maar door de mensen in koloniën worden Dewbacks gebruikt als vervoermiddel en als pakdieren.

Dewbacks komen voor in Star Wars: Episode I: The Phantom Menace en Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope. In deel IV worden ze door meerdere Imperial Stormtroopers gebruikt als vervoermiddel tijdens de zoektocht naar de gevluchte C-3PO en R2-D2. In deel I is een Dewback te zien in Mos Eisley.

Acéphale

Acéphale (dal greco ἀκέφαλος, akephalos, senza testa) è stata una rivista fondata dal filosofo francese Georges Bataille e pubblicata fra il 1936 e il 1939. Alla rivista era legata una società omonima i cui membri avevano fatto voto di segretezza.

Il primo numero della rivista, di sole otto pagine, uscì il 24 giugno 1936. La copertina mostrava un’illustrazione di André Masson con un disegno vagamente ispirato all’uomo vitruviano di Leonardo da Vinci che rappresenta il trionfo della razionalità umana. La figura disegnata da Masson è priva della testa, il pube coperto da un teschio, stringe nella destra un cuore fiammeggiante e nella sinistra un pugnale. Sotto il titolo della rivista, Acéphale, appariva la scritta “Religion. Sociologie. Philosopie”, religione, sociologia, filosofia, seguita subito dopo dall’espressione la conjuration sacrée, la congiura sacra.

Il primo articolo, firmato da Bataille, recava lo stesso titolo, “La congiura sacra”, e proclamava: “Segretamente o no, è necessario divenire tutt’altro oppure cessare di essere” « Il est temps d’abandonner le monde des civilisés et sa lumière. Il est trop tard pour tenir à être raisonnable et instruit — ce qui a mené à une vie sans attrait. Secrètement ou non, il est nécessaire de devenir tout autres ou de cesser d’être. » Più avanti Bataille scriveva: “La vita umana non ne può più di servire da testa e ragione dell’universo, nella misura in cui diventa necessaria all’universo essa accetta un asservimento « La vie humaine est excédée de servir de tête et de raison à l’univers. Dans la mesure où elle devient cette tête et cette raison, dans la mesure où elle devient nécessaire à l’univers, elle accepte un servage. »

Questi evidenti riferimenti alla filosofia di Friedrich Nietzsche vanno visti nella loro prospettiva storica. Mentre gran parte dell’Europa subiva l’influenza del fascismo, il nazismo si era appropriato di Nietzsche, facendone uno dei pensatori fondamentali del movimento, nonostante gli espliciti attacchi del filosofo tedesco all’antisemitismo, al nazionalismo e al razzismo. Pertanto non sorprende che in quegli anni Nietzsche fosse molto impopolare nel mondo culturale francese.

Il secondo numero di Acéphale si apriva con un articolo dal titolo “Nietzsche e i fascisti”, un violento attacco di Bataille a Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, la sorella di Nietzsche che aveva sposato il noto antisemita Bernhard Förster. Il numero conteneva anche un testo inedito dello stesso Nietzsche sul filosofo greco Eraclito e un articolo di Jean Wahl intitolato “Nietzsche e la morte di Dio” everton football shirt, un commento a un testo di Karl Jaspers sul filosofo tedesco.

Tutti gli altri numeri della rivista (sono cinque in totale) erano centrati sulla filosofia di Nietzsche. L’ultimo, mai pubblicato, si doveva intitolare “La follia di Nietzsche”. Oltre a Bataille, i principali contributori della rivista furono: Roger Caillois (numeri 3 e 4), Pierre Klossowski (numeri 1,2,3 e 4), André Masson, Jules Monnerot sports water bottle sets, Jean Rollin e Jean Wahl.

Vista la natura segreta della società Acéphale è difficile ricostruirne le attività. Bataille fa spesso riferimento agli scritti di Marcel Mauss che aveva studiato le società segrete nella cultura africana. Su questo modello, Bataille organizzò diversi incontri notturni nei boschi, vicino una quercia colpita da un fulmine. La società festeggiò la decapitazione di Luigi XVI come prefigurazione del trionfo di una “folla senza testa” e dell'”acefalità”. Durante gli incontri si meditava su testi di Sigmund Freud, del Marchese de Sade e di Marcel Mauss.

Acéphale pubblicò anche la Da Costa Encyclopédique, L’Enciclopedia Da Costa, che avrebbe dovuto essere completata entro il 1947, quando doveva tenersi l’esposizione internazionale surrealista. A causa di una serie di ritardi, i testi dell’enciclopedia non furono distribuiti che parecchi mesi dopo la fine dell’esposizione. Ironica parodia di una normale enciclopedia, la Da Costa metteva ferocemente in ridicolo le convenzioni sociali e individuali del tempo. Una delle voci per esempio era dedicata a una supposta “Licenza di vivere” the glass and bottle, un falso certificato statale, probabilmente inventato da Marcel Duchamp, che si occupava di stampare l’enciclopedia.

Tamara Kunanayakam

Tamara Manimekhalai Kunanayakam is a Sri Lankan diplomat. She was the former Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations Office at Geneva and Sri Lankan Ambassador to Holy See.

Kunanayakam was born in and grew up in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Her father was an Anglican Sri Lankan Tamil from Chundikuli in Jaffna who was a member of the Lanka Sama Samaja Party and the Government Clerical Services Union. Her mother was a Hindu Indian Tamil from Badulla. Kunanayakam’s maternal grandfather Gnanapandithan was a businessman in Badulla who had sympathies for the Indian National Congress and the Indian independence movement.

Kunanayakam was educated at Ladies College, Colombo and briefly at Vembadi Girls’ High School in Jaffna. She became proficient in Tamil, Sinhala and English. In 1972, aged 19, she left Sri Lanka and travelled overland to Europe. She had intended to go to Netherlands but ended up in Switzerland. She worked in Geneva before going to Germany and enrolling at the University of Heidelberg. She graduated with a Bachelor’s degree in Economics and International Relations. She then returned to Geneva and enrolled at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. She graduated in 1982 with a Master’s degree in International Relations. Her widowed mother and brothers moved to Geneva in 1983.

Kunanayakam is fluent in Tamil, Sinhala, English, French, German and Spanish.

After her graduation in 1982, Kunanayakam joined the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) in Geneva, where she worked until 1983. Between 1983 and 1984 she served as a consultant and policy adviser to the Lutheran World Federation. In late July 1983 she sent a fax to the Lutheran World Federation delegates attending the World Council of Churches conference in Vancouver, appraising them of the recent anti-Tamil riots that had occurred in Sri Lanka:

Just received news that Valvettiturai town has been razed and all inhabitants killed. Navy has killed 1,000 in Trincomalee. Two refugee camps in Colombo have been attacked. Food supplies of Jaffna are being blocked by the Army. Our sources of information are UNDP Colombo, NORAD Colombo and Tamil Information Centre London.

The fax was leaked to the media, some of whom mentioned Kunanayakam’s name. Kunanayakam was accused of being an “Eelam propagandist”. She also supplied information on the riots to World Vision International who presented some of them to Junius Richard Jayewardene, President of Sri Lanka. Jayewardene branded Kunanayakam a “terrorist agent” who had supplied false information.

Kunanayakam was a researcher for the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (1984-85) and Antenna International, Geneva (1985-86). She was also a consultant to the UNDP in sub-Saharan Africa in 1985. She returned to the Lutheran World Federation in 1986 and worked there until 1988. In March 1987 Kunanayakam represented the World Student Christian Movement at the 43rd session of the UN Commission on Human Rights and spoke about the torture, disappearances, illegal detentions and other abuses prevalent in Sri Lanka at that time.

Kunanayakam was a human rights officer for the United Nations Centre for Human Rights from 1989 to 1990. In 1991 she became a research fellow at the Institute for Interdisciplinary Research, Heidelberg. She was then a research officer at the International Labour Organization (1991 -93 and head of the department for development of policy at Bread for All, Bern (1993-94). She was first officer at the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights from 1994 to 2005, heading a unit on disappearances goalkeeper jersey online.

Kunanayakam was appointed as Minister Counsellor to the Embassy of Sri Lanka in Brazil in 2007. She was Sri Lanka’s Ambassador to Cuba from 2009 to 2011. In 2011, she was appointed the Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the United Nations Office at Geneva and Sri Lankan Ambassador to Holy See. Kunanayakam was elected Chairperson/Rapporteur of the United Nations Intergovernmental Working Group on the Right to Development in August 2011 and as Vice Chair representing the Asia Group of countries at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) at its 58th Session.

Kunanayakam is the founder of the Foundation on Multilateralism in Geneva and a founding member of the Observatory of Globalization in Paris, the South Group in Geneva and the Asia-Pacific Task Force, Geneva sports water bottle sets. She is author of several publications on international relations, including on the international monetary system, the Multilateral Agreement on Investment, the United Nations reform process, and humanitarian interventions in Yugoslavia, Iraq, and Afghanistan.