Tag Archives: water in bottle

California Redemption Value

California Redemption Value (CRV), also known as California Refund Value, is a regulatory fee paid on recyclable beverage containers in California. The fee was established by the California Beverage Container Recycling and Litter Reduction Act of 1986 (AB 2020, Margolin), and since 2010 the program is administered by the Cal/EPA California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery (CalRecycle) (previously administered by the California Department of Conservation, Division of Recycling).

The bottler pays CRV for beverages with aluminum, plastic, glass drinking water bottle, and bimetal containers and anyone can receive the same amount in exchange for the container by bringing it to a recycling center. The symbol on beverage containers eligible for reimbursement is “CA CRV”. Currently, CRV is 5 cents for containers less than 24 ounces and 10 cents for containers 24 ounces or larger. The state also allows recyclers to pay by weight expandable fanny pack, for which the state also sets a separate minimum price per pound. When redeeming in quantities up to 50 containers, the consumer has the right to be paid by count on request. In larger quantities, the recycler has discretion. Recyclers have the right to refuse or offer a reduced price for contaminated materials.

The charge for California Redemption Value is similar to Bottle Bill deposits used in other states, but is technically a fee imposed on the distributor of the beverage. The fee tends to be passed along to the retailer and to the consumer via normal market forces. Distributors and retailers usually break out the CRV as a distinct part of the purchase price in advertising and on receipts (for example the charge for a 50-cent bottle of soda may appear on the receipt as “45 cents plus 5 cents CRV”).

One way the difference between CRV and a system in which the consumer pays a deposit or tax shows up is that sales tax applies to the CRV amount, if the item is subject to sales tax. If it were not part of the basic price of the product, sales tax would not apply to it. Accordingly, when the State of California raised the CRV from $.04 on 2 ltr. Bottles / $.02 cans to $.08 and $.04, respectively water in bottle, then again to $.10 and $.05, respectively, it was also raising California’s sales tax revenue gained on the imposed fee.

Other states have similar bottle bills/deposit laws, including Connecticut, Hawaii, Iowa, Massachusetts, Maine metal thermos, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Vermont.

CRV is paid on the following types of beverages:

CRV is not paid on the following:

Guerre des Pâtisseries

La guerre des Pâtisseries (en espagnol Primera Intervención Francesa en México ou Guerra de los Pasteles, littéralement « guerre des gâteaux ») est un blocus naval, en 1838, du port de Veracruz au Mexique par les armées françaises.

La guerre survient durant une période d’instabilité politique dans les premières années de la République mexicaine, entre la fin de la guerre d’indépendance avec l’Espagne et avant la Guerre américano-mexicaine.

L’instabilité se traduit aussi par des difficultés financières des gouvernements mexicains, qui imposent des “emprunts forcés” sur les ressortissants étrangers, dont français.

Durant cette période, les exportations françaises vers le Mexique augmentent rapidement glass water bottle brands, si bien que la France se fait une place en tant que troisième — puis deuxième — partenaire commercial du Mexique. Le marché mexicain est désormais un débouché important pour les produits français.

Alors que les États-Unis et l’Angleterre (les deux autres partenaires commerciaux principaux du Mexique) ont déjà obtenu des garanties commerciales fermes en signant des traités commerciaux bilatéraux, la France n’est toujours pas parvenue à répliquer avec un accord lui permettant de bénéficier de la clause de la nation la plus favorisée. Les articles en provenance de la France sont donc taxés plus lourdement que ceux venant des États-Unis ou de l’Angleterre.

La guerre des pâtisseries intervient plus largement dans le cadre des tentatives françaises d’obtenir des privilèges économiques en Amérique hispanique. L’intervention présente notamment des similitudes avec le blocus du Rio de la Plata de 1838 en Uruguay.

La décennie qui précède la guerre des pâtisseries connait une montée de la défiance entre le Mexique et la France, à travers ses ressortissants et commerçants. Violences, pillages, interdictions diverses beef tenderizing marinade, restrictions commerciales et leurs perceptions donnent à la France une excuse pour intervenir.

Après l’indépendance du Mexique et sa reconnaissance par la France en 1830, une communauté de Français a émigré et s’est installée au Mexique. Le commerce entre la France et le Mexique prospère, en particulier avec une augmentation des exportations françaises. La distribution de ces articles français fait vivre une bonne partie de la communauté française.

Cependant, les diplomates français relaient de nombreuses plaintes et réclamations émanant de ces commerçants français. Ces plaintes concernent les pertes matérielles et financières subies lors de pillages comme ceux du marché du Parián à México en 1828, de la pâtisserie Remontel en 1832, ainsi que de multiples actes de violence à l’égard de ressortissants français.

Au mois d’août 1829 water in bottle, 5 Français sont lapidés dans les rues de México.

En 1832, sous prétexte que des officiers auraient pillé la pâtisserie d’un Français du nom de Remontel, le baron Gros réclame 800 pesos de dédommagement. Les journaux mexicains rapportent que le montant de la demande était de 30 000, voire 60 000 pesos.

« En 1838, une flotte française fit une démonstration à Veracruz : il s’agissait d’obtenir le paiement d’indemnités dues à des Français pour les dommages subis au cours des troubles des années précédentes. Un des sinistrés étant un pâtissier dont la boutique avait été pillée, les Mexicains appelèrent l’affaire « la guerre des petits gâteaux. »

— François Weymuller

Le 21 août 1833, ce sont encore 5 Français qui sont assassinés à Atencingo.

Un autre incident eut lieu à Tampico en 1837 où un citoyen français accusé d’actes de piraterie fut fusillé.

Les étrangers dont les propriétés sont endommagées ou détruites sont le plus souvent dans l’impossibilité d’obtenir le moindre dédommagement ; les gouvernements successifs n’ont ni la volonté ni les moyens d’indemniser qui que ce soit, Mexicains ou étrangers. Ceux-ci font donc appel à leur pays d’origine pour obtenir de l’aide.

Prenant ces incidents pour prétextes, la France réclame donc 600 000 pesos en guise de réparations, soit environ trois millions de francs-or.

Après avoir renforcé sa base navale à Cuba, la France envoie également régulièrement des bâtiments aux ports mexicains afin de manifester sa présence et de rassurer la communauté française.

« Monsieur le commandant,

Les négociants établis au Mexique étant exposés à de graves dangers par suite des révolutions qui agitent ce pays, le Roi a décidé qu’une de ces frégates sera envoyée à Veracruz et Sa Majesté m’a autorisé à donner cette destination à la Thémis que vous commandez. L’objet de votre mission est de notifier aux autorités du Mexique que le Roi ne laisserait pas impunies les vexations que des Français éprouveraient dans cette contrée. »

— Instructions du ministre de la Marine au Capitaine de vaisseau Lecoupé, 1829

Le paiement ne venant pas, on envoya d’abord le capitaine de vaisseau Bazoche à bord de la frégate l’Herminie pour faire le blocus et faire connaître les exigences de la France.

Mais ses moyens étant insuffisants et l’équipage atteint de la fièvre jaune, Bazoche demanda son rappel. Le gouvernement français envoya alors une escadre de la marine française sous le commandement du contre-amiral Charles Baudin, pour faire le blocus de tous les ports mexicains de l’océan Atlantique depuis le Yucatán jusqu’au Rio Grande. Cette escadre comportait une corvette : la Créole, commandée par le Prince de Joinville, fils du roi Louis-Philippe.

Cette flotte réussit facilement à venir à bout de la faible garnison de la forteresse mexicaine de San Juan de Ulúa, car son artillerie était obsolète et qu’elle était construite en coraux (piedra mucara), ce qui la rendait plus vulnérable que si elle avait été construite en pierre. Les troupes purent débarquer dès le et prendre le port de Veracruz.

Leur commerce interrompu, les Mexicains commencèrent à faire passer leurs marchandises depuis le port de Corpus Christi au Texas, puis à travers le Rio Bravo. Craignant que la France ne bloque aussi les ports du Texas, une milice texane commença à patrouiller dans la baie de Corpus Christi pour empêcher le commerce mexicain.

Selon le Journal des débats du 11 août 1838, à la suite de leur blocus les Français comptèrent en deux mois 30 navires marchands qui ne purent décharger leurs marchandises estimant à 1 900 000 francs les sommes perdues par le commerce du port de Veracruz

Cependant, sans l’autorisation explicite du gouvernement mexicain du président Anastasio Bustamante, Antonio López de Santa Anna mena des troupes contre les Français. Dans un combat, Santa Anna fut blessé à une jambe, qui dut être partiellement amputée. Les dernières fortifications furent libérées en avril 1839.

Après notamment une intervention diplomatique du Royaume-Uni en soutien de la France, le président Bustamante promit finalement de payer les 600 000 pesos envers les victimes françaises et les forces françaises se retirèrent le 9 mars 1839. Toutefois tops football, cette somme ne fut jamais payée et cette promesse non tenue servit, parmi d’autres arguments, de justification à l’intervention française au Mexique de 1861.

Après ces événements, le gouvernement mexicain donna le titre d’« héroïque » (toujours en vigueur aujourd’hui) au port de Veracruz.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Mango Yellow

Mango Yellow (Portuguese: Amarelo Manga) is a 2002 Brazilian drama film directed by Cláudio Assis. It stars Matheus Nachtergaele, Jonas Bloch, Dira Paes, Chico Díaz, and Leona Cavalli as working-class people who engage in amorous and social encounters, with most of the action taking place in a hotel and a bar. The directorial debut of Assis, the film was partially inspired by his previous short film Texas Hotel. It was filmed on a low budget in the suburbs of Pernambuco.

Mango Yellow received several awards at various film festivals, both in Brazil and abroad, including Festival de Brasília and the Berlin Film Festival. The film was generally praised by domestic reviewers for its characters, soundtrack, cinematography, and depictions of Brazil, while English-speaking critics were more mixed in their response.

The film opens with Lígia, a barmaid who is fed up with her grueling routine and who is forced to routinely turn down the sexual propositions of the bar’s customers. One of the men who hits on Lígia is Isaac, a necrophiliac who enjoys sodomizing corpses and drinking their blood. He lives at the Texas Hotel, where Dunga, a gay man, works as a handyman. Dunga is attracted to Wellington, a butcher who delivers meat to the hotel. Wellington, however, is married to Kika, a woman who is proud to be an evangelical Christian. However, Wellington cheats on his wife with a woman named Dayse. Dayse tires of being Wellington’s mistress and tells Dunga about the relationship.

Dunga anonymously reveals to Kika that her husband is cheating on her, thinking that if he can destroy their marriage, then he and Wellington can become lovers. Kika finds Wellington and Dayse together, attacks them, and then leaves for good. Wellington goes to the Texas Hotel to seek solace. Dunga wants to take Wellington up to his room, but Wellington is put off by the funeral of the recently deceased owner of the hotel. Meanwhile, Isaac is thrown out of the bar after trying to forcibly grab Lígia. He is then seen driving his car and when he meets Kika, he takes her to his apartment and they have sex. As the film concludes, Lígia is shown again complaining about her routine. This is followed by a montage of everyday city life, ending with Kika deciding to dye her hair the same shade that made Isaac so attracted to Lígia.

Writing for The New York Times, Stephen Holden interpreted the film’s message as follows: “This is how the lower half lives in Brazil, and by extension, humanity at its most basic, getting along without the rose-colored protections that affluence affords.” As it deals with these kinds of themes, the film was labeled as “violent”. In response, Assis said that he “films life as it is”. Jose Solis of PopMatters declared that “despite its sorrowful appearance, the film is a celebration of life”. Assis tried to contrast the violence depicted by the Hollywood action films with the “small violences” which people face everyday, making it “poetic and violent at the same time”. Bloch’s character shooting corpses represents “a harmless, symbolic addiction” in the same way other aspects of the film “come from it, this violence within us”.

Writing in The New Yorker, Michael Sragow said that “The human content . water in bottle.. is the stuff of art-house exploitation.” IstoÉ Gentes Domingas Person wrote that the phrase “the human being is stomach and sex”, which is said by the priest in the film, is an apt summary of the film’s “spirit”. Writing in Diário de Pernambuco, Luciana Veras declared that the film “talk[s] about the excluded [people] who also crave the same as the characters in the [tele]novela[s], from Hollywood films or French novels: love and happiness”. Assis criticized the fact that several directors like to “glamorize poverty,” and as such, he characterized his characters to show the people’s vice. José Geraldo Couto of Folha de S. Paulo wrote that the film shows that “the miserable are not dear waiting for the mercy of others, but are full of life, willing to kill or die to fulfill their desires and instincts”. Deborah Young of Variety opined that the mango yellow color represents both “the jaundiced shade of their broken dreams” and their sense “of nonconformity and feeling alive.”

Prior to Mango Yellow, Cláudio Assis worked as a production director on the 1996 film Perfumed Ball and as director on three short films. One of them, Texas Hotel, served as an inspiration to Mango Yellow; Alessandro Giannini of O Estado de S bottled water bottles. Paulo said Texas Hotel is “a kind of ‘privileged test’ of Mango Yellow“, while TV Guides Ken Fox described Mango Yellow as an “expanded version” of Hotel Texas. Couto wrote that the “gratuitous series of aberrations” presented in Texas Hotel was turned into an “articulate narrative and full of meaning”.

The production cost was R$450,000. Assis was happy with this, noting that Brazilian films cost an average of R$3 million at the time Pendant Necklace. The filming took place in the suburbs of the cities of Recife and Olinda, both in the state of Pernambuco. It was shot with 35 mm cameras brought from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and filming took place in five weeks between September and October 2001.

One of the first ideas Assis had for the film was to show the mons pubis of a waitress he knew. Though he was unsure how to include this element, the yellow-colored pubic hair matched the book Tempo Amarelo (“Yellow Time”), by sociologist Renato Carneiro Campos. The title of the film was borrowed from the book, in which the author describes the “rotten teeth of children, the color of poverty in the country”. Assis wanted to create a film to show “the face of the Brazilian people. We are from the Third World and we need to look at ourselves”.

Mango Yellows premiere was held at the Festival do Rio on October 4, 2002, while it was released on domestic theaters on August 15, 2003. Despite receiving praise by film critics, it was moderately received by Brazilian audiences. Mango Yellow grossed R$769,750, with a viewership of 129,021 people in the sixteen Brazilian theaters in which it was shown, representing the twelfth largest audience for a domestic film in 2003.

At the 35th Festival de Brasília, Mango Yellow was selected as Best Film by the official jury, the popular jury, and critics alike; it also received the awards for Best Cinematography, Best Editing, Best Cast, and Best Actor (Díaz). Assis won the award for Best Debut Film at the 25th Havana Film Festival, where the film also won the award for Best Cinematography. It also won for Best Cinematography at the Seventh Brazilian Film Festival of Miami. Mango Yellow won in every feature film category at the 13th Cine Ceará—Best Film, Best Director, Best Cinematography, Best Screenplay, Best Art Direction, Best Original Score, Best Actor (for Nachtergaele), and Best Actress (for Paes)—and also received a special prize for its costume design. Although nominated in 13 categories at the 2004 Grande Prêmio do Cinema Brasileiro, it only won for Best Cinematography. At the 53rd Berlin International Film Festival, it won the award for Best Film in the Forum section, and received the Grand Prix at the 15th Toulouse Latin America Film Festival. It was also nominated for the Ariel Award for Best Ibero-American Film.

The film received generally positive reviews in Brazil. The characters, the actor performances, and the soundtrack were praised by Person and Veras, with Veras noting that the film’s characterizations avoided stereotypes. The film’s cinematography was praised by Person and Veras as well as by Marcelo Hessel from Omelete and Alcino Leite Netto from Folha de S. Paulo, with Netto appreciating that the imagery was neither “decorative” nor “spare”, but a part of the film. The film’s depiction of real life in Brazil was praised by Hessel and Veras, with both of them commenting that City of God is “cosmeticized” if compared to Mango Yellow, and the Hessel stating that Mango Yellow is “a testimony of documentary and sociological value”. Cinepop critic Andrea Don declared it a film that viewers would either love or hate, concluding that “you will not leave the cinema’s room the same as you entered”.

Mango Yellow received mixed reviews from English-speaking reviewers. On review aggregation website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a 60% rating based on five reviews, with an average score of 5.6/10. On Metacritic, which assigns a normalised rating out of 100 based on reviews from critics, the film has a score of 40 (indicating “mixed or average reviews”) based on five reviews. A The Village Voice reviewer described the characters as “babbling caricatures” and the film as a “shallow Brazilian trifle”. Young called Nachtergaele a “standout” as “He embodies the film’s savage over-the-topness without flattening out as some of the other characters do.” Although praising its cinematography, Keith Phipps of The A.V. Club said it is “a film that has nothing to say”. Sragow football game socks, Young, and Fox also praised Carvalho’s work; Fox said it is “[t]awdry stuff … but it’s glorious to look at”. In Sragow’s opinion, the penultimate scene—the montage—”boasts an eloquence that eclipses everything else in the movie”. Holden found the characters to be “robust, full-dimensional people” and praised the film’s “surreal flavor”. Solis praised it, saying “the real pleasure” in the film is that Assis “doesn’t recur to exploitation to make these people memorable”.

The film was released on DVD in Brazil by Califórnia Filmes in 2004, while in the United States it was released by First Run Features in partnership with Global Film Initiative on the “Global Lens 2004/2003” series in 2005, and on the “The Best of Global Lens: Brazil” in 2011.