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MACD, short for moving average convergence/divergence, is a trading indicator used in technical analysis of stock prices, created by Gerald Appel in the late 1970s. It is supposed to reveal changes in the strength, direction, momentum football jerseys for sale, and duration of a trend in a stock’s price.

The MACD indicator (or “oscillator”) is a collection of three time series calculated from historical price data, most often the closing price. These three series are: the MACD series proper, the “signal” or “average” series, and the “divergence” series which is the difference between the two. The MACD series is the difference between a “fast” (short period) exponential moving average (EMA), and a “slow” (longer period) EMA of the price series. The average series is an EMA of the MACD series itself.

The MACD indicator thus depends on three time parameters, namely the time constants of the three EMAs. The notation “MACD(a,b,c)” usually denotes the indicator where the MACD series is the difference of EMAs with characteristic times a and b, and the average series is an EMA of the MACD series with characteristic time c. These parameters are usually measured in days. The most commonly used values are 12, 26, and 9 days, that is, MACD(12,26,9). As true with most of the technical indicators, MACD also finds its period settings from the old days when technical analysis used to be mainly based on the daily charts. The reason was the lack of the modern trading platforms which show the changing prices every moment. As the working week used to be 6-days, the period settings of (12, 26, 9) represent 2 weeks, 1 month and one and a half week. Now when the trading weeks have only 5 days, possibilities of changing the period settings cannot be overruled. However, it is always better to stick to the period settings which are used by the majority of traders as the buying and selling decisions based on the standard settings further push the prices in that direction.

The MACD and average series are customarily displayed as continuous lines in a plot whose horizontal axis is time, whereas the divergence is shown as a bar graph (often called a histogram).

A fast EMA responds more quickly than a slow EMA to recent changes in a stock’s price. By comparing EMAs of different periods, the MACD series can indicate changes in the trend of a stock. It is claimed that the divergence series can reveal subtle shifts in the stock’s trend.

Since the MACD is based on moving averages, it is inherently a lagging indicator. As a metric of price trends, the MACD is less useful for stocks that are not trending (trading in a range) or are trading with erratic price action.

The MACD series proper was invented by Gerald Appel in the 1970s. Thomas Aspray added the divergence bar graph to the MACD in 1986, as a means to anticipate MACD crossovers belt bag for runners, an indicator of important moves in the underlying security.

Over the years, elements of the MACD have become known by multiple and often over-loaded terms. The common definitions of particularly overloaded terms are:

Divergence: 1. As the D in MACD, “divergence” refers to the two underlying moving averages drifting apart, while “convergence” refers to the two underlying moving averages coming towards each other. 2. Gerald Appel referred to a “divergence” as the situation where the MACD line does not conform to the price movement, e.g. a price low is not accompanied by a low of the MACD. and 3. Thomas Asprey dubbed the difference between the MACD and its signal line the “divergence” series. In practice, definition number 2 above is often preferred.

Histogram: 1. Gerald Appel referred to bar graph plots of the basic MACD time series as “histogram”. In Appel’s Histogram the height of the bar corresponds to the MACD value for a particular point in time. 2. The difference between the MACD and its Signal line is often plotted as a bar chart and called a “histogram”. In practice, definition number 2 above is often preferred.

In signal processing terms, the MACD series is a filtered measure of the derivative of the input (price) series with respect to time. (The derivative is called “velocity” in technical stock analysis). MACD estimates the derivative as if it were calculated and then filtered by the two low-pass filters in tandem, multiplied by a “gain” equal to the difference in their time constants. It also can be seen to approximate the derivative as if it were calculated and then filtered by a single low pass exponential filter (EMA) with time constant equal to the sum of time constants of the two filters, multiplied by the same gain. So, for the standard MACD filter time constants of 12 and 26 days, the MACD derivative estimate is filtered approximately by the equivalent of a low-pass EMA filter of 38 days. The time derivative estimate (per day) is the MACD value divided by 14.

The average series is also a derivative estimate, with an additional low-pass filter in tandem for further smoothing (and additional lag). The difference between the MACD series and the average series (the divergence series) represents a measure of the second derivative of price with respect to time (“acceleration” in technical stock analysis). This estimate has the additional lag of the signal filter and an additional gain factor equal to the signal filter constant.

The MACD can be classified as an absolute price oscillator (APO), because it deals with the actual prices of moving averages rather than percentage changes. A percentage price oscillator (PPO), on the other hand, computes the difference between two moving averages of price divided by the longer moving average value.

While an APO will show greater levels for higher priced securities and smaller levels for lower priced securities, a PPO calculates changes relative to price. Subsequently, a PPO is preferred when: comparing oscillator values between different securities, especially those with substantially different prices; or comparing oscillator values for the same security at significantly different times, especially a security whose value has changed greatly.

Another member of the price oscillator family is the detrended price oscillator (DPO), which ignores long term trends while emphasizing short term patterns.

Exponential moving averages highlight recent changes in a stock’s price. By comparing EMAs of different lengths, the MACD series gauges changes in the trend of a stock. The difference between the MACD series and its average is claimed to reveal subtle shifts in the strength and direction of a stock’s trend. It may be necessary to correlate the signals with the MACD to indicators like RSI power.

Some traders attribute special significance to the MACD line crossing the signal line, or the MACD line crossing the zero axis. Significance is also attributed to disagreements between the MACD line or the difference line and the stock price (specifically, higher highs or lower lows on the price series that are not matched in the indicator series).

A “signal-line crossover” occurs when the MACD and average lines cross; that is, when the divergence (the bar graph) changes sign. The standard interpretation of such an event is a recommendation to buy if the MACD line crosses up through the average line (a “bullish” crossover), or to sell if it crosses down through the average line (a “bearish” crossover). These events are taken as indications that the trend in the stock is about to accelerate in the direction of the crossover meat tenderizer how to use.

A “zero crossover” event occurs when the MACD series changes sign, that is, the MACD line crosses the horizontal zero axis. This happens when there is no difference between the fast and slow EMAs of the price series. A change from positive to negative MACD is interpreted as “bearish”, and from negative to positive as “bullish”. Zero crossovers provide evidence of a change in the direction of a trend but less confirmation of its momentum than a signal line crossover.

A “positive divergence” or “bullish divergence” occurs when the price makes a new low but the MACD does not confirm with a new low of its own. A “negative divergence” or “bearish divergence” occurs when the price makes a new high but the MACD does not confirm with a new high of its own. A divergence with respect to price may occur on the MACD line and/or the MACD Histogram.

The MACD is only as useful as the context in which it is applied. An analyst might apply the MACD to a weekly scale before looking at a daily scale, in order to avoid making short term trades against the direction of the intermediate trend. Analysts will also vary the parameters of the MACD to track trends of varying duration. One popular short-term set-up, for example, is the (5,35 waterproof containers,5).

Like any forecasting algorithm, the MACD can generate false signals. A false positive, for example, would be a bullish crossover followed by a sudden decline in a stock. A false negative would be a situation where there was no bullish crossover, yet the stock accelerated suddenly upwards.

A prudent strategy may be to apply a filter to signal line crossovers to ensure that they have held up. An example of a price filter would be to buy if the MACD line breaks above the signal line and then remains above it for three days. As with any filtering strategy, this reduces the probability of false signals but increases the frequency of missed profit.

Analysts use a variety of approaches to filter out false signals and confirm true ones.

A MACD crossover of the signal line indicates that the direction of the acceleration is changing. The MACD line crossing zero suggests that the average velocity is changing direction.

Mikhaïl Klodt

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Mikhaïl Klodt portrait par Ivan Kramskoï

Le baron Mikhaïl Klodt (en russe : Михаил Константинович Клодт фон Юргенсбург, Mikhaïl Konstantinovitch Klodt von Jürgensburg), né le à Saint-Pétersbourg et mort le à Saint-Pétersbourg, est un peintre russe, paysagiste de la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Le premier parmi les peintres russes à lier les scènes de genre au paysage épique. Il est le neveu du célèbre sculpteur russe Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg (dit aussi en russe Piotr Karlovitch Klodt) et le cousin de l’artiste-peintre Mikhaïl Petrovitch Klodt. Il fut le maître de Nikolaï Doubovskoï, un des peintres du groupe des Ambulants, dont il fit lui-même partie nicest football jerseys. Constantin Kryjitski fut également un de ses élèves.

Son père était général-major d’artillerie. Mikhaïl Klodt étudia à l’Académie russe des beaux-arts (1851—1858) de Saint-Pétersbourg. Il termine ses études chez Maxime Vorobiov (ru). Après avoir obtenu des prix pour ses travaux, il décroche une bourse pour étudier en France où il passe un an avant de revenir à sa demande en Russie en janvier 1861.

En 1870, il devient membre des Ambulants. Il meurt en 1902.

Selon le critique Vladimir Stassov il peut être considéré comme un « peintre aux sentiments poétiques villageois ».

Simbirsk sur la Volga, 1881

Grand chemin l’automne waterproof containers, 1863

Aux champs best running hydration system, 1872

Vue le soir sur le village. Gouvernement d’Orlov, 1874

Forêt au loin à midi, 1876

Vaches au gué, 1879

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

(ru) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en russe intitulé «  » ().

Пеньков, Иван Михайлович

14 августа 1916(1916-08-14)

село Марьевка, Пестравский район, Самарская область

4 ноября 1983(1983-11-04) (67 лет)

село Марьевка, Пестравский район, Самарская область


танковые войска


Великая Отечественная война

Иван Михайлович Пеньков (1916—1983) — старший лейтенант Рабоче-крестьянской Красной Армии, участник Великой Отечественной войны, Герой Советского Союза (1945). Командир взвода 53-й гвардейской Фастовской танковой бригады 6-го гвардейского танкового корпуса 3-й гвардейской танковой армии 1-го Украинского фронта.

Иван Пеньков родился 14 августа 1916 года в селе Марьевка ныне Пестравского района Самарской области в крестьянской семье. После окончания средней школы работал трактористом в машинно-тракторной станции. Член ВКП(б) с 1943 года.

В 1938 году был призван в Красную Армию. Участвовал в боях на Халхин-Голе.

На фронте во время Великой Отечественной войны с самого её начала. Воевал на Юго-Западном, Южном,Северо-Кавказском, Закавказском и 1-м Украинском фронтах. Окончил Курсы усовершенствования офицерского состава meet tenderizer. На войне был трижды ранен и контужен.

Участвовал в Ростовской наступательной, Нальчикско-Орджоникидзевской, Краснодарской, Львовско-Сандомирской и Висло-Одерской операциях.

Пеньков отличился при форсировании Пилицы, уничтожив танк и несколько десятков гитлеровцев. В бою за Халембу, действуя из засады, успешно уничтожил 3 танка, а также множество автомобилей противника.

Указом Президиума Верховного Совета СССР от 10 апреля 1945 года за «образцовое выполнение боевых заданий командования на фронте и проявленные при этом мужество и героизм» старший лейтенант Иван Пеньков был удостоен высокого звания Героя Советского Союза с вручением ордена Ленина за номером 50146 и медали «Золотая Звезда» за номером 7512.

С 1945 года — в запасе. Работал заместителем директора в средней школе, а затем механизатором в колхозе.

Иван Пеньков скончался 4 ноября 1983 года. Похоронен в родном селе.

Его именем названа одна из улиц в селе Марьевка, а также школа, где он работал.

Пеньков был награждён орденом Ленина, орденами Отечественной войны 1-й и 2-й степеней waterproof containers, медалью «За оборону Кавказа» и медалью «За победу над Германией».

Balthasar Seckman

Balthasar Seckman (29. januar 1645 i København – 1722) var en dansk jurist, søn af borgmester i København Balthasar Seckman (d. 1675) og Mette ther Borch.

Seckman blev 1662 fra vor Frue Skole dimitteret til universitetet. 1670 studerede han i Leiden og udgav her i trykken en ligtale over kong Frederik III.

1675 udnævntes han til gehejmeregistrator og sekretær i danske Kancelli. 1688 blev han beskikket til justitssekretær og 1711 til assessor i Højesteret, deputeret i generalkommissariatet og etatsråd.

Ved kollegiets deling året efter udnævntes han til at forestå søetatens generalkommissariat. Seckman gravsattes 9 waterproof containers. februar 1722. Han ægtede 1678 Magdalena von Platou (23. januar 1661 – 8. februar 1693), datter af jægermester Abraham Jacob von Platou til Skørringe og Dorothea Knudsdatter.

Denne artikel bygger hovedsagelig på biografi(er) i 1. udgave af Dansk Biografisk Leksikon, Udgivet af C.F. Bricka, Gyldendal (1887–1905).
Du kan hjælpe Wikipedia ved at ajourføre sproget og indholdet af denne artikel.

Hvis den oprindelige kildetekst er blevet erstattet af anden tekst eller redigeret således football goalie gloves, at den er på nutidssprog og er wikificeret, bedes skabelonen venligst erstattet med et dybt link til DBL som kilde, og indsættelse af [[Kategori:Artikler fra 1 belt fanny pack. udgave af Dansk biografisk leksikon]] i stedet for DBL-skabelonen game football jerseys.

Élection régionale de 1986 en Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur

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Les élections régionales ont lieu en Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur le pour renouveler les 117 sièges du conseil régional. Il s’agit des premières élections régionales au suffrage universel.

Jean-Claude Gaudin (UDF) est élu à la faveur d’une alliance avec le Front national face au président sortant, le socialiste Michel Pezet.

Michel Pezet (PS) préside le conseil régional sortant underwater smartphone case, élu au suffrage indirect. Il est candidat pour cette première élection au suffrage universel direct.

La droite UDF-RPR présente la candidature de Jean-Claude Gaudin.

Le Front national apparait commune la force montante, notamment depuis les élections cantonales de l’année précédente. Pour Gaudin, le FN est un allié de choix : il déclare « L’adversaire se situe à gauche, ; à droite, je ne vois que des concurrents », mais cette position est contestée au sein même de l’UDF, notamment par François Léotard.

Le Parti communiste présente la candidature de Robert Allione, mais les communistes sont en perte de vitesse dans la région, une partie de leurs électeurs passant au PS.

Le waterproof containers, le conseil régional se réunit pour élire son président lime squeezer stainless steel. Le matin même, à la suite des réunions de groupe, un accord est annoncé entre la droite et le Front national.

Ainsi, au second tour de scrutin et à l’issue d’une séance houleuse, les voix du parti d’extrême-droite se reporte sur Jean-Claude Gaudin, lui offrant la majorité absolue nécessaire à son élection. Gaudin forme un exécutif composé de 8 vice-présidents : 3 UDF kids soccer t shirts, 3 RPR et 2 vice-présidents FN.


Dhadi (punjabi : ਢਾਡੀ, Dhādi) aussi écrit dhadhi, est le nom des bardes, des chanteurs de vars, (des versets ou des poèmes), ballades et autres fables qui exercaient sur le sous-continent indien sous l’égide de princes et de chefs de village afin de mettre en exergue les faits valeureux des leurs. Le nom dadhi vient du tambour utilisé par ces ménestrels qui porte le nom de dhad. Leur origine viendrait d’un combat mythologique entre Mahakal et Suasvirya, combat décrit dans le Dasam Granth. Suasvirya serait le premier dhadi clothes lint remover.

Dans le sikhisme waterproof containers, le terme dhadi est utilisé pour dénommer ceux qui chantent des prières à Dieu. Guru Nanak (Page 150 du Guru Granth Sahib) et Guru Amar Das, se décrivent comme des dhadhis du Seigneur:

ਹਉ ਢਾਢੀ ਹਰਿ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਖਸਮ ਕਾ ਹਰਿ ਕੈ ਦਰਿ ਆਇਆ ॥

ਹਰਿ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਸੁਣੀ ਪੂਕਾਰ ਢਾਢੀ ਮੁਖਿ ਲਾਇਆ ॥

ਹਰਿ ਪੁਛਿਆ ਢਾਢੀ ਸਦਿ ਕੈ ਕਿਤੁ ਅਰਥਿ ਤੂੰ ਆਇਆ ॥

ਨਿਤ ਦੇਵਹੁ ਦਾਨੁ ਦਇਆਲ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਧਿਆਇਆ ॥

ਹਰਿ ਦਾਤੈ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਜਪਾਇਆ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਪੈਨਾਇਆ ॥੨੧॥੧॥ ਸੁਧੁ

traduit :

Je suis un dhadhi de l’Éternel Dieu, mon Seigneur et maître ; Je suis venu devant la porte du Seigneur.

Le Seigneur a entendu mes cris tristes intérieurs ; Il m’a appelé, son dadhi, en sa présence nicest football jerseys.

Le Seigneur a appelé son dhadi et lui a demandé: “pourquoi venez-vous ici ?”

Ô Dieu de miséricorde, s’il vous plaît accordez moi le don de la continuelle méditation sur Votre Nom.

Et alors le Seigneur, le Bienveillant, inspiré de Guru Nanak, m’a permis de scander son Nom et il m’a béni avec robes d’honneur. (Page 91 du Guru Granth Sahib).

Guru Hargobind utilisait ce terme de dhadi envers les musiciens ; il était friand de leurs œuvres et à contribuer au développement de cette musique.

À l’heure actuelle les groupes de dhadis appelés Dadhi Jatha, (jatha signifie: équipe), se retrouvent dans le Pendjab et chantent des louanges à Dieu mais aussi des contes héroïques ou des chansons du folklore, notamment lors des diwans how to tenderize beef quickly, des réunions religieuses ou historiques.


Perilex is the tradename for an approved indoor three-phase electric power connector system used in Germany (West Germany), the Netherlands and Sweden. It has mostly been superseded by the IEC 60309 system used throughout Europe.

There are two variants, a more common 16-ampere version and a rarely used, 25-ampere version. The connectors are equipped with protective earth (PE), a neutral conductor (N) and three phase conductors (L1, L2, L3; formerly: R, S, T). As the German industrial norm VDE 0100 prescribed the phase sequence for all types of three-phase connectors in a way incompatible with the original Perilex pinout, the R and T connectors may have been swapped. The PE connector is protruding and will therefore mate first. In order to distinguish the variants, the 16-ampere version has a horizontal PE connector waterproof containers, whereas it is vertical in the 25-ampere variant.

In Germany, Perilex connectors have been standardised by DIN. The 16-ampere version is DIN 49445 (socket) and DIN 49446 (plug) and the 25-ampere version is DIN 49447 (socket) and DIN 49448 (plug). It did replace an earlier flat 4-pin connector (3 phases and neutral) that was standardized in DIN 49450 / DIN 49451. The earlier flat connector did continue to exist in East Germany – after German reunification, all machinery was required to be rebuilt to round connectors until 1998.

Usage of the Perilex connectors is usually confined to small businesses (e.g. bakeries, restaurants), medical facilities (hospitals, laboratories) and homes, where it has the advantage of a smaller form factor and better cleanability. However, at construction sites and industrial facilities, the IEC connectors are preferred due to their better robustness and due to being approved for medium-term outdoor use. Furthermore, it is unwise to connect three-phase electrical motors to Perilex sockets due to the afore-mentioned ambiguity regarding the phase sequence. Since 1 January 1975, the use of the Perilex system has been outlawed in Germany for new industrial installations but continues to be legal in homes remington shaver parts, hospitals and small businesses. However, even there, it is being superseded by the IEC 60309 system used throughout Europe[citation needed] how to tenderize meat without a meat tenderizer. The fact that East Germany used a completely different system (TGL 4176), resulting in two incompatible non-IEC systems in re-unified Germany, also contributes to this trend.