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Jon Hellevig

Jon Krister Hellevig (born 26 February 1962) is a Finnish lawyer and businessman who has worked in Russia since the early 1990s. He is the managing partner of the Moscow-based law company Hellevig, Klein & Usov Llc. Hellevig has written books about Russian legislation and society and writes columns for Russian media.

Hellevig was a candidate in the European parliament election in 2014. During the campaign he caused a stir when he berated and threatened the opera singer Karita Mattila in a vulgar way, after she had refused to perform under the leadership of a Russian conductor who supported Russian President Vladimir Putin’s policy in Ukraine.

Newsweek magazine used Hellevig as a source to comment on letters sent to Finnish army reservists. In the original version of the article, the letters were regarded as preparation for a crisis situation. The article was edited and Hellevig’s comments removed after a response by the Finnish Defence Forces.

Hellevig openly supports Vladimir Putin’s regime and the separatist movement in Ukraine.

In the late 1980s Hellevig was co-founder of Interbank wholesale long socks, which focused on handling transactions between different banks in Finland. The market dropped soon after the beginning of the Finnish banking crisis and the bank was eventually sold.

During the banking crisis, when Hellevig had to consider a new direction for his career, he travelled with his wife to the Soviet Union to visit her relatives. Soon after his return socks for sale wholesale, the 1991 Soviet coup d’état attempt took place. After seeing on television Yeltsin giving his famous speech from atop a tank, Hellevig went to a book store and bought a Russian language book for beginners. Hellevig started to study the language and was posted to Moscow by Finnish construction company Haka for consulting in its partly owned joint venture Sofinamtrans. Hellevig was the only foreigner in the organisation and got a thorough introduction to Soviet-style bureaucracy. The assignment included negotiations with EBRD and it eventually took five years.

Hellevig’s next job was for Armstrong World Industries, which produced interior ceilings. The company had ambitious investment plans and Hellevig led a large financial department. However, the 1998 Russian financial crisis put a stop to investments, and the department capacity was underused. Armstrong was pressured to keep down costs, but it still wanted to stay in the Russian market. Hellevig persuaded the company to outsource the department under a new company called Avenir, after which it served other companies operating in Russia. Hellevig became the manager of Avenir.

Avenir Group was later renamed Awara. It offers consulting services for companies operating in Russia. Hellevig still leads the company which has locations in Russia in Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Tver and Yekaterinburg, as well as Kiev in Ukraine and Helsinki in Finland. Hellevig is the managing partner in the law firm Hellevig, Usov & Klein, which works under Awara.

Hellevig was a candidate for the European parliament in the 2014 elections on the list of the Finnish Independence Party. He advocated for Finland’s separation from the European Union and the maintenance of a good relationship with Russia. While the campaign was still ongoing, Hellevig criticised soprano Karita Mattila for her decision not to perform in New York City under the leadership of Russian conductor Valery Gergiev, who supports the Russian actions in the East Ukrainian conflict. On Facebook, Hellevig called Mattila a Nazi whore, compared her to Eva Braun, and threatened her with gang rape. The Independence Party leadership dissociated themselves from Hellevig’s comments and asserted that the party no longer supported Hellevig’s election campaign. As it was not possible to withdraw from the election, Hellevig remained a candidate. He received 287 votes.

Hellevig writes articles for the Russian media. In his writings, he supports Putin’s regime and claims that Western media are biassed or lying about the political situation in Russia. Hellevig thinks that Western countries will eventually recognize Russian rule in the Crimean peninsula.

In May 2015, Newsweek magazine reported that the Finnish Defence Forces (FDF) is preparing itself for a crisis situation by sending informational letters to army reservists. According to the Defence Forces, there was no link between the reservist letters and the ongoing conflict in Ukraine, and the FDF noted a number of factual errors found in the article. One of the sources had been Hellevig, and his comments were removed from the updated version of the article.

Zheng Ruozeng

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Zheng Ruozeng (chinois simplifié : 郑若曾 ; chinois traditionnel : 鄭若曾&nbsp running belt india;; pinyin : zhèng ruòzēng), né en 1503 à Kunshan, près de Suzhou, dans la province du Jiangnan, en Chine impériale, et décédé en 1570, est un cartographe chinois de la Dynastie Ming (1368 – 1644), ayant notamment cartographié le Japon et le Royaume de Ryūkyū.

Il est le premier à produire des cartes aussi complètes des côtes chinoises, en raison des attaques des corsaires japonais wholesale long socks, les Wakō (ou en chinois, wokou (倭寇, wōkòu, « bandit japonais » ou « bandits nains »), les précédentes cartes chinoises, avant le XVIe siècle s’attachaient d’avantage au Nord et Nord-Est, les attaques provenant principalement des Mongols, Jurchens et Mandchous .

En 1540, Zheng Ruozeng compile un atlas stratégique des côtes de la Chine, de la péninsule du Liaodong, au Nord, à la province du Guangdong, au Sud.

En 1560, Il est invité par Hu Zongxian&nbsp New Balance Kids;(zh) (胡宗宪) pour devenir son conseiller, il était alors déjà en train de travailler sur son futur ouvrage de défense maritime.

En 1561, il complète une collection de carte intitulée Riben tu zuan (日本图纂 / 日本圖纂, rìběn tú zuǎn, « Compilation de cartes du Japon »), probablement en poursuivant les corsaires japonais (Wakō), ce qui lui valu la proposition de Hu Zongxian de rejoindre son équipe, dans la lutte contre les pirates Xu Hai (zh) (徐海) et Wang Zhi (zh) (汪直 ou 王直). Zheng Ruozeng n’a jamais voyagé au Japon, il a compilé des informations recueillies sur les côtes du Sud de la Chine, auprès de personnes affectées par les raids des corsaires, de wokou capturés, et de marchants chinois ayant visité Nagasaki pour des échanges marchants. Jiang Zhou et Chen Keyuan sont deux personnes lui ayant fourni beaucoup de documents à ce sujet.

Il est l’auteur du Chouhai tubian (筹海图编 / 籌海圖編, chóuhǎi túbiān, « essai illustré sur la défense maritime ». Ce texte existe en trois ou quatre éditions datant de 1562 à 1624, l’édition de 1624, par les descendants de Hu Zongxian, ont retiré la mention du nom de Zheng Ruozeng comme auteur. Il y décrit les marins japonais, comme de mauvais navigateurs, se reportant aux rapports des XIVe siècle et XVe siècle, décrivant les routes qu’ils empruntent et leurs armes. Il y décrit également leur navires comme ayant le fond trop plat pour une bonne navigation en haute mer.

Il jouissait d’une très bonne santé à l’âge de 60 ans.

Il a principalement élaboré des œuvres sur la défense sur les mers et les fleuves

Carte du royaume de Ryūkyū, paru dans « Description illustrée du Royaume Ryukyu » (《琉球圖説》),

Jonque de guerre chinoise dans « Chouhai tubian » (籌海圖編) en 1562

Plan de côtes, d”embouchures et de fortifications.

Pit River Tribe

The Pit River Tribe is a federally recognized tribe of eleven bands of indigenous peoples of California. They primarily live along the Pit River in the northeast corner of California. Their name also is spelled as “Pitt River” in some historical records.

The eleven bands are as follows:

The eleven bands of the Pit River Tribe speak two related languages. Nine speak Achumawi and two speak Atsugewi (Atsuge and Apwaruke). They are classified in the northern group of the postulated Hokan ‘superstock’ of languages, and a subgroup called Palaihnihan has been proposed for just these two languages.

The tribe also owns trust lands in Lake County, California, Lassen, Mendocino, Modoc, and Shasta Counties.

The tribe conducts business from Burney, California. They were officially recognized as a tribe in 1976 and ratified their constitution in 1987. Each of the eleven bands is represented in the tribal council.

On August, 1964, a Constitution was formally adopted by the Pit River Tribe. The Preamble states:

“… for the purpose of securing our Rights and Powers inherent in our Sovereign status as reinforced by the laws of the United States, developing and protecting Pit River (Ajumawi – Atsugewi) ancestral lands and all other resources, preserving peace and order in our community, promoting the general welfare of our people and our descendants, protecting the rights of the Tribe and of our members, and preserving our land base, culture and identity,…”

While the Pit River group originally filed a separate land claims, after the Indian Claims Commission was created in 1946, the Pit River tribe was encouraged in 1963 to participate in the larger claims—Indians of California vs U. S. – but ultimately there was disharmony within the tribe and they rejected their monetary award goalkeeper shirts.

Overview of Some Prehistoric and Historic Events and Periods:

Approximately 200 AD: New technology, the bow and arrow, is introduced into the Pit River area.

Pre-1800 – Pit River bands of indigenous natives were living in abundance for thousands of years. For thousands of years, numerous indigenous villages were situated around and along Achoma (the Pit River) and out onto the surrounding plains, hills, mountains, and valleys. The people utilized the natural resources of their land to the fullest. In addition to harvesting deer, salmon, trout, rabbit, birds, and other small mammals, they often moved around their territory and gathered acorns, roots, herbs, and fruits, as each came into their season.

Before the European-American immigration, the Native Americans of the Pit River region were thriving. The eleven bands in the region had similarities and differences in their language and ways. Some downriver bands lived in simple pit houses in small familial villages along Achoma (aka, the Pit River). They led a somewhat nomadic life, following opportunities to harvest foods from the rich resources of this valley, and ready to move to higher ground when the creeks and rivers flooded in the rainy season. Archaeological evidence and some information collected by ethnographers in the early 1900s gives only minimal details of the thriving culture and communities that existed in the vast Pit River territory.

Pit River artists and crafters apparently used both basalt and lots of obsidian from Glass Mountain to make tools and weapons. Obsidian arrowheads and obsidian flakes from tool-making have been found all over the valley from the river banks to the hillsides and high in mountain hunting camp areas.

1827-1830s – European-American/Canadian fur trappers and explorers began passing through the Pit River area

1830s – Many Pit River natives died from imported disease epidemics.

1848 – California became part of U.S.A. through Treaty of Hidalgo with Mexico (in 1850 California became a state).

1849- Gold Rush begins wholesale long socks, bringing a new huge wave of migrants into California running bib belt, many of whom were ruthless abusers and murderers of Indian people.

1851-53 – U.S. Congress and California Legislature created various laws that denied Indians land rights and effectively extinguished all aboriginal title in the state, paving the way for continued conflict, with no treaties or protections for the Pit River Indians.

1850s and 1860s: The movement of white emigrants into Pit River territory caused more and more Pit River displacement and changes to the environment. The emigrants often had no respect for the delicate balance of nature, grazing their cattle and horses in prime hunting and gathering areas. A steady flow of emigrants arrived determined to occupy Pit River land and began the process of confiscating and fencing off the land.

1850s – European-American immigrant expansion interest and activity in Pit River region began. USA government, military forces, and settlers invaded, attacked, displaced, and killed the majority of Pit River Indians, with no treaties or compensation made for land seized.

Regionally (intensifying in the mid 1850s), the European invaders ruthlessly and tragically destroyed most of the Pit River natives, and their way of life. The Pit Rivers (and virtually all California indigenous bands) were repeatedly abused, killed, and brutally massacred, as the invaders raided village after village in countless incidents, including some more well-known battles, such as the “Wintoon War” and the “Pit River War”…

Here is one account of some of those ruthless attacks: “War was declared on the Indians in 1858. General William Kibbe and Captain I. G. Messec led military and civilian soldiers against the Indians from Trinity County all the way to the Fall River Valley. These soldiers were known as Kibbe’s Guards and were ruthless, efficient Indian killers.” Many Indians surrendered under the threat of death or starvation, others were captured, untold numbers were killed, and their villages and food supplies were destroyed in the battles.

In 1859, 700 captured Pit River Indians were forcibly taken to the Round Valley Reservation in Mendocino County for internment. The number of soldiers reported killed in the attacks varies; one account mentions 25, while another mentions 90. The main war ended in 1859. Although the vast majority of Pit River Indians had been killed or forcibly moved out of the area, some remained, hidden away, and over 500 of those who were sent away eventually returned to their homeland, only to find white settlers taking over more and more property.

By 1868 the US Army under General George Crook brutally took control of many upriver Achoma areas. Many stories of brutal massacres and senseless racist killings of Pit River people have been handed down through the oral tradition. The Pit River area also underwent many other kinds of impacts. Government timber land went on sale in 1878, and allowed the purchase of up to 160 acres at $2.50 an acre. Outlying areas were victim to a speculative boom as a result, and large acreages passed into private hands. The area was subsequently heavily logged. The super intense ecosystem-destroying over-harvesting of timber in Big Bend region remains a huge problem today. Most of the once vast and diverse forests in the area have been abused, destroyed, and changed into unhealthy tree farms by clear-cutting and other industrial logging practices.

The European-American settler occupation of the Pit River territories disrupted the safety of the Pit River people, and their traditional food supply. Many “Pit Rivers” were displaced against their will, some brutally murdered, in these years. Some returned or resettled nearby when they could, but countless people were cut off from their extended families and their traditional food sources. Into the 1900s, many Pit River people survived in poverty and some were hired out as ranch hands, mill workers, forestry workers, etc… The brutal arrival of white emigrants forever altered the environment and culture of the Pit River people. The Pit River people never signed a treaty with the United States or the State of California; their land was simply illegally confiscated.

Today, the Pit River people have survived and continue to live in what is now called Shasta County, as well as throughout the West. Some continue to hunt and gather in their traditional places, and pray at their sacred sites throughout their homeland. Today, they are a federally recognized tribe (headquarters located in Burney, CA) with several “Rancheria” and allotment “satellite” reservations, a casino, a gas station and convenience store, a giant commercial cannabis growing facility (raided by US and California drug agents in July 2015) and a tribal council that includes representation of each of the eleven bands making up the Pit River Nation.

They would use amelanchier to create a sort of body armor, the wood was made into a heavy robe or overcoat and corset armor and used for fighting. Members of the Pit River tribe would also sell taxus brevifolia to the Ukiah.

The bulbs dug from meadows and acorns from oaks were an important source of food. A ground up form of these plants were stored for winter use.